四段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

A compound of 四段 (yodan, four grades) and 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation).

Noun[edit]

四段活用 (hiragana よだんかつよう, romaji yodan katsuyō)

  1. (grammar) quadrigrade conjugation; a verbal conjugation class consisting of four alternating bases: -a, -i, -u, -e. Examples:
Irrealis Adverbial Conclusive Attributive Realis Imperative
sak- sak-a sak-i sak-u sak-u sak-e2 sak-e1
kak- kak-a kak-i kak-u kak-u kak-e2 kak-e1
yom- yom-a yom-i yom-u yom-u yom-e2 yom-e1

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

See also[edit]

Related terms[edit]