上二段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
yutōyomi

Etymology[edit]

A compound of 上二段 (kami nidan, upper dual grade) and 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation). Eventually changes into 上一段活用 (kami ichidan katsuyō) verbs. The "upper" notation refers to the base -i which comes before the "lower" -e in Japanese order.

Noun[edit]

上二段活用 (hiragana かみにだんかつよう, romaji kami nidan katsuyō)

  1. (grammar) upper dual grade conjugation; a verbal conjugation class which has the following inflections: i/i/u/uru/ure/i[yo]. Dual refers to the two columns (i and u) of the syllabary table that the conjugation occurs in. Dual grade conjugation occurs in literary Japanese, while the same verbs conjugate as Kami-Ichidan (e.g. 落つ-> 落ちる) in colloquial Japanese.

Examples:

Irrealis Adverbial Conclusive Attributive Realis Imperative
ok- "to rise" ok-i ok-i ok-u ok-uru ok-ure ok-i[yo]
sug- "to spend" sug-i sug-i sug-u sug-uru sug-ure sug-i[yo]
ik- "to live" ik-i ik-i ik-u ik-uru ik-ure ik-i[yo]

See also[edit]

Related terms[edit]