ļauns

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the stem of the verb ļaut (to allow, to permit; to tolerate) (q.v.), with a suffix *-no. The original meaning was probably “allowed (to do as s/he pleased), allowed (to let go)” (compare palaist (to let go), palaidnis (naughty child)). Cognates include Lithuanian liáunas, liaũnas (flexible; slim, slender; weal; free, serene).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

ļauns (definite ļaunais, comparative ļaunāks, superlative visļaunākais, adverb ļauni)

  1. evil, wicked (whose behavior, attitude towards others is hostile, cruel, vile, criminal)
    ļauns cilvēksevil person
    viens un tas pats cilvēks var būt vienā brīdī bezgala labs un otrā, neticami ļaunsthe same person can be one moment infintely good, and then, incredibly evil
  2. evil (expressing hatred, cruelty)
    ļauns smīnsevil grin
    ļauna sirdsevil heart, malice
    ļauns prieksgloat (lit. evil joy)
    ļauna acs (kādam)(someone has) evil eye (i.e., can curse)
  3. evil, bad (relating to, leading to something very undesirable, misfortune, sorrow; dangerous)
    ļauns liktenisevil fate
    ļauns stāvoklisbad, twisted condition
    noticis kas ļaunssomething bad happened
    ļaunākajā gadījumāin the worst (lit. worse) case
    visas labās un ļaunās dienasall the good and bad days
  4. evil, twisted, dark (whose content expresses something hateful, cruel)
    ļauns humorstwisted, dark humor
    ļauna slavainfamy (lit. evil fame)
  5. (of animals, plants) harmful
    no gundegu sugām pašas indīgākās ir ļaunās gundegasof all species of buttercup the most poisonous is the celery-leaved buttercup (lit. evil buttercup)

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ļauns”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7