The word is first attested in Homer Iliad 7.206. Believed to be a borrowed word, probably from Urartian [script needed] (burgana, “palace, fortress”); compare also Old Armenian բուրգն (burgn, “pyramid”). Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high”), with cognates including Sanskrit बृहत् (bṛhát, “lofty, high, tall”), Old Armenian բարձր (barjr, “high”) and Old English burg (English borough). Kretschmer suggested a borrowing from Proto-Germanic *burgz (“fortified town, hill-fort”) mediated through some Northern Balkans language (Macedonian?). However, according to Beekes the abundance of Pre-Greek placenames (e.g. Πέργαμον (Pérgamon) ) seems to indicate a Pre-Greek origin.
- tower, watchtower
- (in the plural) towered wall
- the part of the house where women live
- castle, fortress, bulwark
- (military) division, column
- πύργος in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- πύργος in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
- πύργος in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
- «πύργος» in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
- Bauer, Walter et al. (2001) A Greek–English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Third edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
- «πύργος» in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
- πύργος in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
- “G4444”, in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979
- Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
- Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill
From Ancient Greek.
- ακροπύργιο n (akropýrgio, “castle keep”)