կաղամախի

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Armenian[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Old Armenian կաղամախի (kałamaxi).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

կաղամախի (kałamaxi)

  1. Eurasian aspen, Populus tremula[1][2]
    Synonym: բարդի դողդոջուն (bardi dołdoǰun)
    Hypernym: բարդի (bardi)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Łazaryan, Ṙuben S. (1981), “բարդի դողդոջուն”, in Busanunneri hayeren-latineren-ṙuseren-angleren-franseren-germaneren baṙaran [Armenian–Latin–Russian–English–French–German Dictionary of Plant Names], Yerevan: University Press, § 147c, page 16b
  2. ^ Grigoryan A. (1979), “կաղամախի”, in Hambarjumyan V. H. et al., editors, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran [Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia] (in Armenian), volume 5, Yerevan: Haykakan sovetakan hanragitarani glxavor xmbagrutʿyun, page 194a

Old Armenian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Usually considered a borrowing from an unidentified source.[1][2]

Ačaṙean connects with similar words in languages of Azerbaijan and the Caucasus, namely Salmas Azerbaijani kələmbur (white poplar), Tabriz Azerbaijani qələmə (poplar), Lak кӏялахӏи (ḳjalaḥi, poplar), and assumes common borrowing into the languages of the region from a lost Urartian or Old Median word. He remarks that the homeland of the tree is unknown but that it spread eastward in view of Tehrani Persian تبریزی (tabrīzī, of or belonging to Tabriz; poplar-tree),[3] but according to Hacaloğlu, the latter is the black poplar, Populus nigra[4].

Saradževa, based on J̌ahukyan's personal communication, adduces also the Hesychian gloss καλαμίνδαρ (kalamíndar, πλάτανος ἡδονιεῖς = plane-tree according to Edoni), which is usually taken as a Thracian word of unknown origin, obviously containing *dar (tree) from Proto-Indo-European *dóru as the second component.[5] Saradževa further compares Hesychian καλαδία (kaladía, ῥυκάνη = plane-tree).[5] She assumes a borrowing from a Mediterranean substrate for all these words.

Martirosyan connects also dialectal Ararat Armenian կալամա ծառ (kalama caṙ), քալամբըռ (kʿalambəṙ) and considers կաղամ-ախ(-ի) (kałam-ax(-i)) a Mediterranean/Pontic treename composed of *kalam- and a "tree-suffix" -ախ (-ax).[6][7] He explains the Azerbaijani parallel by dissimilation from *kalam-dar (again with *dar (tree)) → *kalam-bar, but this is based on the unreliable Salmas Azerbaijani form kälämbär quoted by Ačaṙean.

The following forms usually are not cited in the literature, but clearly are related: dialectal Nakhijevan Azerbaijani kələmbir, kələmbir (a kind of tree, probably aspen), South Azerbaijani کلنبوُر (kələnbur), کلمپور (kələmpur, Tilia), South Azerbaijani göy qələmə (white poplar). Moreover, Azerbaijani qələmə (poplar) given by Ačaṙean is much more widespread than assumed by him and has the additional meaning ‘plane-tree’ in dialects. The supposed Rutul form kalax ‘poplar’ cited by Ačaṙean based on Erckert[8] does not exist in modern materials on the language and should be amended to къавах (poplar) and joined with Lezgi къавах (q̄avaχ, poplar) and other Caucasian forms cited by J̌ahukyan,[9] all of which, however, should be removed from comparison as recent Turkic borrowings.

In reality, probably a Northeast Caucasian borrowing, from a native Northeast Caucasian compound containing a word for ‘white’ of the form *kala- or similar (compare inherited Lak кӏяла (ḳjala, white)) and a certain tree name, perhaps ‘poplar’, or even simply ‘wood, timber’ or ‘tree’: compare Chechen мах (maχ, aspen), Ingush мих (miχ), миха (miχa, aspen; poplar), Avar мах (maχ, birch), in oblique cases махи- (maχi-), Lak мархъ (marq, poles for planking the ceiling; birch), мурхь (murx, tree), мак (mak, softwood), dialectal махъ (maq, birch), гьи (hi, birch), Tsez мей (mej), ме (me, birch), Budukh мерх (merχ, birch), Dargwa махъ (maq, birch), Chechen маъ (maʾ, alder), Ingush миинг (miing, alder), мехинг (meχing), михинг (miχing, poplar) etc. For the middle element of καλα-μίν-δαρ (kala-mín-dar) compare especially the quoted Ingush forms. For the last element of Armenian կալա-մա (kala-ma), Azerbaijani qələ-mə compare Chechen маъ (maʾ, alder), Tsez ме (mej, birch). The unetymologized Ancient Greek καλαμίνθη (kalamínthē, a good-smelling plant) may contain the same *kala- ‘white’; for the second part compare the Kulturwort Armenian մանդակ (mandak).

Such a compound is represented by Lak кӏялахӏи (ḳjalaḥi), кӏяла-гьи (ḳjala-hi, birch; possibly aspen, poplar). See it for more.

For most of the above and many other Caucasian tree designations Nikolayev / Starostin reconstruct three separate Proto-Northeast Caucasian roots with reflexes in modern languages which are similar and tend to contaminate.[10][11][12]

For tree names formed from a color confer Martirosyan 2010: “[the poplar, aspen, linden, plane] display a similar etymological pattern involving a semantic derivation from ideas like ‘shiny, bright’ and ‘pure’... The connection is based on the bright whiteness of the birchbark.”[13] Note also the names of Populus alba in other languages, which contain the word for ‘white’ or ‘silver’: Azerbaijani göy qələmə, ağca-qovaq, Turkish ak-kavak, Classical Syriac ܚܘܪܐ (ḥawwərā), Arabic حَوْر (ḥawr), Russian то́поль серебри́стый (tópolʹ serebrístyj), Central Kurdish سپیدار (spîdar), English white poplar. Note also Kabardian пхъэхуей (pχăx°ej, birch, literally wood-white).

Noun[edit]

կաղամախի (kałamaxi)

  1. a species of poplar, namely white poplar, Populus alba and/or Eurasian aspen, Populus tremula
    • 5th century, Bible, Isaiah 41.19
      Եւ բղխեցուցից յանջուր երկրին զմայրն եւ զտօսախն, զմուրտն եւ զնոճն եւ զսօսն, զսարդն եւ զսարոյն եւ զկաղամախն, զգին եւ զփայտն իւղոյ։
      Ew błxecʿucʿicʿ yanǰur erkrin zmayrn ew ztōsaxn, zmurtn ew znočn ew zsōsn, zsardn ew zsaroyn ew zkałamaxn, zgin ew zpʿaytn iwłoy.
      I will produce in the dry land the cedar and box, the myrtle and cypress and plane, the cedar and cypress and white poplar, the juniper and the olive wood.
    • 5th century, Bible, Hosea 4.13
      [] ի ներքոյ կաղնեաց եւ կաղամախեաց եւ վարսաւոր ծառոց []
      [] i nerkʿoy kałneacʿ ew kałamaxeacʿ ew varsawor caṙocʿ []
      [] under oaks and white poplars and leafy trees []
    • 5th century, Agatʿangełos, Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ [History of the Armenians] § 644
      որպէս մայրն և նոճն և շոճն ե թեղօշն և սարդն և սարոյն և սոսն և յակրին և գին և կաղամախն և ուռին և տօսախն։
      orpēs mayrn ew nočn ew šočn e tʿełōšn ew sardn ew saroyn ew sosn ew yakrin ew gin ew kałamaxn ew uṙin ew tōsaxn.
  2. possibly pine
    • 5th century, Bible, 2 Paralipomenon 2.8
      Եւ տացես բերել ինձ փայտս սարոյն մայր և կաղամախ ի Լիբանան լեռնէ []
      Ew tacʿes berel inj pʿayts saroyn mayr ew kałamax i Libanan leṙnē []
      Send me also cypress, cedar and kałamax wood out of Mount Lebanon []
    • 5th century, Basil of Caesarea, Homiliae in Hexaemeron , (1830 edition, page 93)
      Ապա եթէ ոք միտ եդեալ մեղմով ուշ ի կուրծսն, կամ սերմանիս կամ այլ ինչ նման սերմանց գտանէ ի ծառսն, ի սօսքն և կնձնիք և ի կաղամախիքն, և այլ բազում ծառք՝ որ նոցին նմանք են, պտուղ իմն ունին թանձրախիտ տերևօք․
      Apa etʿē okʿ mit edeal mełmov uš i kurcsn, kam sermanis kam ayl inčʿ nman sermancʿ gtanē i caṙsn, i sōskʿn ew knjnikʿ ew i kałamaxikʿn, ew ayl bazum caṙkʿ, or nocʿin nmankʿ en, ptuł imn unin tʿanjraxit terewōkʿ;

Usage notes[edit]

The identification of the tree species has been disputed. In Isaiah, Hosea and Galen translates Ancient Greek λεύκη (leúkē, white poplar). In Agatʿangełos found in an enumeration of tree-names, between գի (gi, juniper) and ուռի (uṙi, willow). In 2 Paralipomenon corresponds to Ancient Greek πεύκη (peúkē, pine) in a set of three tree names;[6] this seems to be corroborated by the attestation in Hexaemeron.[6] Still, the identification with "pine" is not conclusive. Among modern scholars Ketikean (apud Ačaṙean) and Łazarean identify with Populus tremula,[3][14] Artʿinean with Populus alba,[15], Mēnēvišean (apud Ačaṙean) with Populus pyramidalis,[3] whereas Diratzouyan with the whole genus Populus[16].

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J̌ahukyan, Geworg (2010), “կաղամախ(ի)”, in Vahan Sargsyan, editor, Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Asoghik, page 376
  2. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 936
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973), “կաղամախ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 492ab
  4. ^ Hacaloğlu, Recep Albayrak (1992), “tebrizî”, in Azeri Türkçesi dil kilavuzu : Güney Azeri Sahası Derleme Deneme Sözlüğü, Ankara, →ISBN, page 275b
  5. 5.0 5.1 Saradževa, L. A. (1981), “Etimologija armjanskovo nazvanija osiny—kałamax [The Etymology of the Armenian kałamax 'asp']”, in Patma-banasirakan handes [Historical-Philological Journal]‎[1] (in Russian), issue 4, pages 227–229
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 347
  7. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2013), “The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian”, in Journal of Language Relationship[2], issue 10, page 114
  8. ^ Erckert, Roderich von (1895) Die Sprachen des kaukasischen Stammes. I. Theil. Wörterverzeichniss (in German), Vienna: Alfred Hölder, page 111
  9. ^ J̌ahukyan, Geworg (1987) Hayocʿ lezvi patmutʿyun; naxagrayin žamanakašrǰan [History of the Armenian language: The Pre-Literary Period] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Academy Press, page 612
  10. ^ Nikolayev, S. L.; Starostin, S. A. (1994), “*mĭhV”, in A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary, Moscow: Asterisk Publishers
  11. ^ Nikolayev, S. L.; Starostin, S. A. (1994), “*mħĕrqwĕ ( ~ -ʕ-, -ɨ̆)”, in A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary, Moscow: Asterisk Publishers
  12. ^ Nikolayev, S. L.; Starostin, S. A. (1994), “*nŭlxV ( ~ *nɨ̆lxwV)”, in A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary, Moscow: Asterisk Publishers
  13. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 173
  14. ^ Łazarean, Ṙ. S. (2000), “կաղամախի”, in Tʿosunean G. B., editor, Grabari baṙaran [Dictionary of Old Armenian] (in Armenian), Yerevan: University Press, page 622b
  15. ^ Artʿinean, Yovhannēs (1913) Astuacašunčʿi tunkerə usumnasiruac mer naxneacʿ tʿargmanutʿean vray [Les plantes de la Bible d’après la version Arménienne du Ve siècle par le docteur Johannès Artignan]‎[3] (in Armenian), Constantinople: K. ew M.Y. Kʿēšišean, page 34
  16. ^ Béguinot, Augusto; Diratzouyan, Nersès (1912) Contributo alla flora dell’Armenia, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, §§ 71–73

Further reading[edit]

  • Ališan, Łewond (1895) Haybusak kam haykakan busabaṙutʿiwn [Armenian Botany]‎[4] (in Armenian), Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, § 1269, pages 285–286
  • Awetikʿean, G.; Siwrmēlean, X.; Awgerean, M. (1836), “կաղամախի”, in Nor baṙgirkʿ haykazean lezui [New Dictionary of the Armenian Language] (in Old Armenian), volume I, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, page 1037a
  • Petrosean, H. Matatʿeay V. (1879), “կաղամախի”, in Nor Baṙagirkʿ Hay-Angliarēn [New Dictionary Armenian–English], Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, page 320b