तमस्

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See also: तामस

Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative scripts[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *támHas, from Proto-Indo-European *témHos (darkness). Cognate with Avestan 𐬙𐬆𐬨𐬀𐬵(təmah), Persian تم(tam, cataract), Latin tenebra (darkness).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

तमस् (támasn

  1. darkness, gloom (also in plural)
    तमः प्रणीत (támaḥ práṇīta)"led into darkness", deprived of the eye's light or sight
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 5.14.4:
      अग्निर्जातो अरोचत घ्नन्दस्यूञ्ज्योतिषा तमः
      अविन्दद्गा अपः स्वः ॥
      agnirjāto arocata ghnandasyūñjyotiṣā tamaḥ .
      avindadgā apaḥ svaḥ .
      Agni shone bright when born, with light killing the Dasyus and the darkness:
      He found the Kine, the Waters, the Sun.
  2. the darkness of hell, hell or a particular division of hell
  3. the obscuration of the sun or moon in eclipses, attributed to Rahu
  4. mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error
  5. tamas, one of the three qualities or constituents of everything in creation (the cause of heaviness, ignorance, illusion, lust, anger, pride, sorrow, dullness, and stolidity)
  6. sin
  7. sorrow

Declension[edit]

Neuter as-stem declension of तमस् (támas)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative तमः
támaḥ
तमसी
támasī
तमांसि
támāṃsi
Vocative तमः
támaḥ
तमसी
támasī
तमांसि
támāṃsi
Accusative तमः
támaḥ
तमसी
támasī
तमांसि
támāṃsi
Instrumental तमसा
támasā
तमोभ्याम्
támobhyām
तमोभिः
támobhiḥ
Dative तमसे
támase
तमोभ्याम्
támobhyām
तमोभ्यः
támobhyaḥ
Ablative तमसः
támasaḥ
तमोभ्याम्
támobhyām
तमोभ्यः
támobhyaḥ
Genitive तमसः
támasaḥ
तमसोः
támasoḥ
तमसाम्
támasām
Locative तमसि
támasi
तमसोः
támasoḥ
तमःसु
támaḥsu

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Maharastri Prakrit: 𑀢𑀫 (tama)
  • Pali: tamo

Borrowed terms[edit]