強い

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
つよ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

May be a newer term than kowai below; now the more common term for strong. Found in texts from at least CE 859.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

強い (-i inflection, hiragana つよい, rōmaji tsuyoi)

  1. strong, durable, powerful
    • 2006 April 15, Anzai, Nobuyuki, “AKTアクト.139/ ウォーゲームさいしゅうけっせん アランVSバーサス.ハロウィン② [AKT.139/ War Games Final Battle: Alan VS. Halloween ②]”, in MÄRメル MÄRCHEN AWAKENS ROMANCE [MÄR: MÄRCHEN AWAKENS ROMANCE], volume 13 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-120125-3, page 153:
       (よわ) (やつ) (つよ) (やつ) () (せい)になるのは (ひつ) (ぜん)なんだ
      Yowai yatsu ga tsuyoi yatsu no gisei ni naru no wa hitsuzen nan da
      It’s inevitable that the weak become sacrifices for the strong
Inflection[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こわ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, c. CE 720.

Cognate with 怖い (kowai, scary, frightening), apparently from the sense of freezing from fright.[1][2] Likely also cognate with other terms beginning with ko- and related to senses of hard, stiff, such as 凝る (koru, to stiffen), 凍ゆ (koyu, to freeze, to become frozen, classical) → modern 凍える (kogoeru).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

強い (-i inflection, hiragana こわい, rōmaji kowai, historical hiragana こはい)

  1. hard, tough, stiff
  2. stubborn
Inflection[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9