強い

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
つよ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1] In turn from Proto-Japonic *tuyə. Cognate with Miyako (tsū), Okinawan 強ーさん (chūsan).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "強い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 強く よく
[tsúꜜyòkù]
[tsùyóꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 強い [tsùyóꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 強い [tsùyóꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 強くない よくない
くない
[tsúꜜyòkùnàì]
[tsùyóꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 強かった よかった
かった
[tsúꜜyòkàttà]
[tsùyóꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 強くなかった よくなかった
くなかった
[tsúꜜyòkùnàkàttà]
[tsùyóꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 強いです いです [tsùyóꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 強くて よくて
くて
[tsúꜜyòkùtè]
[tsùyóꜜkùtè]
Conditional 強ければ よければ
ければ
[tsúꜜyòkèrèbà]
[tsùyóꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(つよ) (tsuyoi-i (adverbial (つよ) (tsuyoku))

  1. strong, durable, powerful
    • 2006 April 15, Nobuyuki Anzai, “AKT(アクト).139(ひゃくさんじゅうきゅう)/ ウォーゲーム(さい)(しゅう)(けっ)(せん) アランVS(バーサス).ハロウィン()”, in MÄR(メル) MÄRCHEN AWAKENS ROMANCE, volume 13 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 153:
      (よわ)(やつ)(つよ)(やつ)()(せい)になるのは(ひつ)(ぜん)なんだ
      Yowai yatsu ga tsuyoi yatsu no gisei ni naru no wa hitsuzen na n da
      It’s inevitable that the weak fall prey to the strong
  2. strong, competent, good
    (すう)()(つよ)
    sūji ni tsuyoi
    good at figures
  3. high tolerance, resilient
    (あめ)(つよ)
    ame ni tsuyoi
    resilient to rain
Inflection[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こわ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, c. CE 720. Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kƏpa.

Cognate with 怖い (kowai, scary, frightening), apparently from the sense of freezing from fright.[1][2] Likely also cognate with other terms beginning with ko- and related to senses of hard, stiff, such as 凝る (koru, to stiffen), 凍ゆ (koyu, to freeze, to become frozen, classical) → modern 凍える (kogoeru).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(こわ) (kowaiこはい (kofai)?-i (adverbial (こわ) (kowaku))

  1. hard, tough, stiff
  2. stubborn
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Verb[edit]

() (shii

  1. imperfective and stem (or continuative) forms of 強いる (shiiru) [ichidan]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN