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This is a record of major changes i made to the Chinese entry of the Han character ().

Difference between the previous version see here.

Merging the first two listed readings[edit]

The merging of m=jū, c=zeoi1,ceoi1 and m=jǔ,jū, c=zeoi1,zeoi2 to m=jū,jǔ; c=zeoi1,zeoi2,ceoi1 is because it isn’t feasible to split these readings into two or three separate words in Middle Chinese, let alone etymologies – they're almost definitely variations of the same word. The MC readings in Wiktionary are derived from Guangyun, which provides four readings for 苴, with three relevant here:

It seems feasible to separate #2 from #4 and #1 as it does look like it could have a different etymon, while #4 and #1 are evidently variant morphs of the same word; but we do note that no dictionaries do this.

重編國語辭典修訂本 (online ed. 6) gives jǔ for the sense "grass insole; pad in shoe" and jū for "hemp", which is a distinction that Yupian did make, but said distinction seems to have not been consistently made since at least as early as the Tang dynasty.

With the considerations above i group together all definitions associated with these three pronunciations. Note that it is evident that Zhengzhang Shangfang's Old Chinese reconstructions for are extrapolated from Middle Chinese, so they do not provide any more etymological information than the MC readings.

Moving 苴國 from chá to jū[edit]

See this government letter (wayback machine).

Separating character variance and heteronymy[edit]

Some readings and definitions clearly arise due to the fact that can be a variant form of a number of characters. I made those into their own etymologies.


漢語大字典 has two additional readings for , bāo and jiē, that are not covered by the current Wiktionary entry. I do not include them because the source materials that provide these readings are scantily otherwise corroborated, and are either too indiscriminate (like Jiyun) or just poor exegesis that i find hard to believe. I list what 漢語大字典 has for them here:

bāo 集韻班交切,平肴幫。

jiē 集韻咨邪切,平麻精。