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Alternative forms[edit]


From ad- (to, towards, at) +‎ firmō (strengthen, fortify).


  • (Classical) IPA(key): /afˈfir.moː/, [afˈfɪr.moː]
  • (file)


affirmō (present infinitive affirmāre, perfect active affirmāvī, supine affirmātum); first conjugation

  1. I present (something) as fixed, firm, or true; affirm, assert, maintain.
  2. I strengthen, confirm, corroborate.
  3. (figurative) I make clear


   Conjugation of affirmo (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present affirmō affirmās affirmat affirmāmus affirmātis affirmant
imperfect affirmābam affirmābās affirmābat affirmābāmus affirmābātis affirmābant
future affirmābō affirmābis affirmābit affirmābimus affirmābitis affirmābunt
perfect affirmāvī affirmāvistī affirmāvit affirmāvimus affirmāvistis affirmāvērunt, affirmāvēre
pluperfect affirmāveram affirmāverās affirmāverat affirmāverāmus affirmāverātis affirmāverant
future perfect affirmāverō affirmāveris affirmāverit affirmāverimus affirmāveritis affirmāverint
passive present affirmor affirmāris, affirmāre affirmātur affirmāmur affirmāminī affirmantur
imperfect affirmābar affirmābāris, affirmābāre affirmābātur affirmābāmur affirmābāminī affirmābantur
future affirmābor affirmāberis, affirmābere affirmābitur affirmābimur affirmābiminī affirmābuntur
perfect affirmātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect affirmātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect affirmātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present affirmem affirmēs affirmet affirmēmus affirmētis affirment
imperfect affirmārem affirmārēs affirmāret affirmārēmus affirmārētis affirmārent
perfect affirmāverim affirmāverīs affirmāverit affirmāverīmus affirmāverītis affirmāverint
pluperfect affirmāvissem affirmāvissēs affirmāvisset affirmāvissēmus affirmāvissētis affirmāvissent
passive present affirmer affirmēris, affirmēre affirmētur affirmēmur affirmēminī affirmentur
imperfect affirmārer affirmārēris, affirmārēre affirmārētur affirmārēmur affirmārēminī affirmārentur
perfect affirmātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect affirmātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present affirmā affirmāte
future affirmātō affirmātō affirmātōte affirmantō
passive present affirmāre affirmāminī
future affirmātor affirmātor affirmantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives affirmāre affirmāvisse affirmātūrus esse affirmārī affirmātus esse affirmātum īrī
participles affirmāns affirmātūrus affirmātus affirmandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
affirmāre affirmandī affirmandō affirmandum affirmātum affirmātū

Derived terms[edit]