amok

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

The term first appeared in English around the 16th century, associated with the people of Malaysia and Java, first described in the 1516 text "The Book of Duarte Barbosa: An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants", which was translated to English by Stanley.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /əˈmɒk/, /əˈmʌk/
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɒk

Adverb[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

amok (comparative more amok, superlative most amok)

  1. Out of control, especially when armed and dangerous.
  2. In a frenzy of violence, or on a killing spree; berserk.
    • 1854, Thoreau, Walden:
      I [] might have run ‘amok’ against society; but I preferred that society should run ‘amok’ against me.”

Usage notes[edit]

Almost exclusively used in the phrase run amok.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Cebuano: amok
  • Czech: amok
  • Danish: amok (or directly from Dutch amok)
  • Finnish: amok
  • German: Amok
  • Hebrew: אמוק(ámok)
  • Norwegian: amok
  • Serbo-Croatian:
  • Swedish: amok

Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

amok (plural amoks)

  1. One who runs amok; in Malay and Moro/Philippine culture, one who attempts to kill many others, especially expecting that they will be killed themselves.
  2. The act of running amok.
    • 1849, “Malay Amoks Referred to Mahomedanism”, in J. R. Logan, editor, The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, volume III, Singapore: [] G. M. Frederick, “Sentence of death upon a Malay convicted of running amok”, page 461:
      On the morning of the amok this person met him, and asked him to work at his boat “He replied that he could not, he was very much afflicted.” [] The amok took place on the 8th, the trial on the 13th, and the execution on the 15th July,—all within eight days.
    • 1874, Translations from the Hakayit Abdulla (bin Abdulkadar), Mūnshi, London: Henry S. King & Co., [], pages 133, 233 and 234:
      The late assassinations of Lord Mayo and Chief Justice Norman, though not committed by Malays, would be called “amoks.” [] In the case of the Lieutenant-Governor of Singapore, his being “amoked” appears to have been a mere chance collision, the intended victim having been another native by whom the “amoker” had been imprisoned. The real cause of the “amok” was the imprisonment—an insult to a descendant of the Prophet, and how artfully was the intended revenge concealed from the jailor! [] Now, I have perceived since people have been hung several times in Malacca and Singapore, amoks, murders, and piracies have lessened,—just in the same manner as when you see heavy squalls, thunder and lightning, that these being in truth dangerous and frightful, but they clear the atmosphere, carrying off all bad vapours, from which proceed sicknesses: thus come good health and tranquility to mankind. [] The population of the tropics are akin to their climate,—generally calm, listless, and dreamy,—but these amoks intermittently, like Sumatra squalls, burst forth and bear down all before them. Yet, like the squall, the frenzied amoker has but a short career, []
    • 1893 July, W. Gilmore Ellis, “The Amok of the Malays”, in D. Hack Tuke and Geo. H. Savage, editors, The Journal of Mental Science, volume XXXIX, number 166 (new series, 130), part 1, “Original Articles”, London: J. and A. Churchill, [], page 325:
      For the convenience of this paper I shall call the man who runs Amok an “Amoker,” and the crime “Amoking.” / [] I believe Penang has claimed that the Chief Justice’s (Sir Wm. Norris) sentence, which reads like one of those of the middle ages, and which I will give in detail later on, passed upon an Amoker, and carried out within eight days of the Amok in 1846, was the means of stamping out Amok entirely for years, but I can obtain no reliable information in proof of this. I intend trying to give a brief sketch of Amok and its causes, some notes on recent cases, and to point out a possible field in which its pathology may eventually be determined.

Verb[edit]

amok (third-person singular simple present amoks, present participle amoking, simple past and past participle amoked)

  1. Synonym of run amok
    • 1849, James Low, “A Translation of the Keddah Annals Termed Marong Mahawangsa; and Sketches of the Ancient Condition of Some of the Nations of Eastern Asia, with References to the Malays”, in J. R. Logan, editor, The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, volume III, Singapore: [] G. M. Frederick, chapter VIII, page 265:
      The Rájá not listening to this language, again tried to kill Gumpar with a spear, and all his people assisted in thrusting and cutting at him; there was a great hubbub, and people outside of the fort were astonished to learn that there was amoking within it.
    • 1866, Charles Brooke, Ten Years in Saráwak, volume I, London: Tinsley Brothers, [], pages 27 and 55:
      After being there about ten minutes he revived, and soon entered into conversation with us; but he looked fiendish, as if something was preying upon his mind. This we found to be the case, as some gay Lothario had lately robbed him of his intended bride. Such causes in most instances lead to the Malay amoking (running a-muck). [] I have never yet known a case of a Dyak amoking, yet it was of frequent occurrence among Malays in former times.
    • 1874, Translations from the Hakayit Abdulla (bin Abdulkadar), Mūnshi, London: Henry S. King & Co., [], pages 133 and 138:
      One of the Governors of Bencoolen was thus “amoked” in his own sitting-room, where he met instant death, owing to his having by mistake struck the son of a Malay chief with his whip when taking his evening airing in a buggy. A Dutch admiral was “amoked” on his own quarter-deck when receiving a Javanese chief and his family on board, he having saluted (as was the custom of his country at that time) the chief’s daughter. He died on the spot for the supposed insult. In the case of the Lieutenant-Governor of Singapore, his being “amoked” appears to have been a mere chance collision, the intended victim having been another native by whom the “amoker” had been imprisoned. [] It was about two Fridays after this that the Sultan and Mr. Raffles met at the house of Colonel Farquhar, for on that day there was a trial of an ‘amoker,’ who had ‘amoked’ at Campong Glam; and when this was over, Mr. Raffles asked the Sultan about their former discourse.
    • 1893 July, W. Gilmore Ellis, “The Amok of the Malays”, in D. Hack Tuke and Geo. H. Savage, editors, The Journal of Mental Science, volume XXXIX, number 166 (new series, 130), part 1, “Original Articles”, London: J. and A. Churchill, [], page 325:
      For the convenience of this paper I shall call the man who runs Amok an “Amoker,” and the crime “Amoking.” / It is necessary to state at once that I do not in any way intend to discuss the point as to whether the judicial execution of men Amoking is right or wrong, or as to whether execution of all Amokers would tend to lessen the frequency of the crime.
    • 1896, Henry Ling Roth, “Character Notes and Sketches”, in The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. [], volume I, New York, N.Y.: Truslove & Comba, [], “Amoking”, page 95:
      “I have never yet known a case of a Dyak amoking.” So wrote Sir Charles Brooke (i. 55) thirty years ago. Ten years later Mr. G. Gueritz, Resident at Semanggang, wrote as follows: “I am exceedingly sorry to have to report a very serious case of amoking at Lingga. A Kalaka man named S’Apong on returning to his house the other evening, from fishing, drew his parang and cut down his wife, father-in-law and a child; the woman is desperately wounded. []” (S. G., No. 69.)
    • 1965, The Sarawak Museum Journal, page 218:
      All the people proclaimed that he must be killed at once as they were afraid of his amuking amongst the people.
    • 1971, William Shaw, “Amuk”, in Federation Museums Journal, pages 3, 8, and 12:
      When, for example, men made a desperate charge upon an enemy position in time of war, they were said to have amuked. An elephant, a buffalo, or even a fighting cock, could amuk in the sense that it temporarily went berserk (Plate. 1.). Yet when the cry of “Amuk!” “Amuk!” was raised by Malay warriors or pirates, it usually signified their intention to carry on a fight to the death in which no quarter was to be asked or given. [] The most famous of the allegedly invulnerable Juramentados was Panglima Hassan, who held a large part of the Sulu population in fear of his magic and hypnotic power until 1903 when, after a series of near miraculous escapes, he amuked once too often and was killed by American soldiers on the island of Jolo. [] The Bugis who amuked was a quiet-living man who, until that fateful day, had shown no obvious signs of madness.
    • 1993, quoting Stephen Peace, Committee Overview: Industry and Consumer Perspective, California State Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce, page 109:
      This is what happens when you give constitutional authority to a bureaucracy. They don't have to answer to us. They humor us occasionally by appearing before our Committee, but we have no authority over the PUC because they are independently out there by virtue of constitutional authority. Particularly when you have the PUC operating in a vacuum in terms of policy leadership, because there are only 2 PUC commissioners. Which means, of course, they can't talk to each other because it's a violation of whatever. So, you have bureaucracy run amok, and it's been "amoking" for seven years, and none of us has had the guts to say anything about it.

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Cebuano[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree). Displaced amog.

Verb[edit]

amok

  1. to run amok

Noun[edit]

amok

  1. one who runs amok

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown.

Noun[edit]

amok

  1. a surf; waves that break on an ocean shoreline

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Noun[edit]

amok m

  1. Condition of amok behaving.

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok or from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Adjective[edit]

amok

  1. Out of control, especially when armed and dangerous.
  2. In a frenzy of violence, or on a killing spree; berserk.

Usage notes[edit]

Exclusively used adverbially in the phrase gå amok.[1]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Malay amuk.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

amok n or m (plural amoks)

  1. (historical, chiefly uncountable) A murderous frenzy, a killing spree in Malay culture.
  2. (historical, countable) One who runs amok, someone who is on such a killing spree.
    Synonym: amokmaker
  3. (uncountable) uproar, riot, noise

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Danish: amok (or through English amok)

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Noun[edit]

amok

  1. amok (one who runs amok)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of amok (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative amok amokit
genitive amokin amokien
partitive amokia amokeja
illative amokiin amokeihin
singular plural
nominative amok amokit
accusative nom. amok amokit
gen. amokin
genitive amokin amokien
partitive amokia amokeja
inessive amokissa amokeissa
elative amokista amokeista
illative amokiin amokeihin
adessive amokilla amokeilla
ablative amokilta amokeilta
allative amokille amokeille
essive amokina amokeina
translative amokiksi amokeiksi
instructive amokein
abessive amokitta amokeitta
comitative amokeineen
Possessive forms of amok (type risti)
possessor singular plural
1st person amokini amokimme
2nd person amokisi amokinne
3rd person amokinsa

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Adverb[edit]

amok

  1. amok

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Adverb[edit]

amok

  1. amok

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

amok m inan

  1. running amok (act of behaving disruptively or uncontrollably)
    Synonym: szał
  2. running amok (act of going on a killing spree)
  3. (colloquial) mania (violent derangement)
    Synonyms: mania, obsesja, szajba, szał

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • amok in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • amok in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English amok, from Portuguese amouco, from Malay amuk (to go on a killing spree).

Noun[edit]

amok m (Cyrillic spelling амок)

  1. Condition of amok behaving.

Tocharian B[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from a Middle Persian source.

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Can someone find the Middle Iranian word for this? I haven't been able to find the word given in my source anywhere online.”

Noun[edit]

amok ?

  1. art, artifice, craft

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “amok”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 21