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See also: der, dêr, dër, děr, -der, and der-




  1. der, with emphasis



Of unknown origin.[1]


  • IPA(key): [ˈdeːr]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -eːr


dér (usually uncountable, plural derek)

  1. frost


Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative dér derek
accusative deret dereket
dative dérnek dereknek
instrumental dérrel derekkel
causal-final dérért derekért
translative dérré derekké
terminative dérig derekig
essive-formal dérként derekként
inessive dérben derekben
superessive déren dereken
adessive dérnél dereknél
illative dérbe derekbe
sublative dérre derekre
allative dérhez derekhez
elative dérből derekből
delative dérről derekről
ablative dértől derektől
possessive - singular
déré dereké
possessive - plural
déréi derekéi
Possessive forms of dér
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. derem dereim
2nd person sing. dered dereid
3rd person sing. dere derei
1st person plural derünk dereink
2nd person plural deretek dereitek
3rd person plural derük dereik

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ dér in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further reading[edit]

  • dér in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • dér in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (’A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2021)

Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • dǽr (Milan glosses)


From Proto-Celtic *dakrom, from Proto-Indo-European *dáḱru. Celtic cognates include Welsh deigryn and Cornish dager. More distant Indo-European relatives include Old Norse tár, Old Armenian արտասուք (artasukʿ), Ancient Greek δάκρυ (dákru), and Latin lacrima.[1]


dér n (nominative plural dér)

  1. tear, teardrop (from the eyes)
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 23a13
      .i. robtar lugu na dǽr quam ad·fiadatar.
      i.e. the tears were fewer than are related.
    • c. 815–840, published in "The Monastery of Tallaght", in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1911-1912, Royal Irish Academy), edited and with translations by Edward J. Gwynn and Walter J. Purton, vol. 29, pp. 115–179, paragraph 66,
      Níco[n]·tald-som iarum dér dia gruad statim co·tánic dochum Findio.
      Immediately thereafter, he did not wipe the tear from his cheek until he came to Findio.


Neuter o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative dérN dérN dérL, déra
Vocative dérN dérN dérL, déra
Accusative dérN dérN dérL, déra
Genitive déirL dér dérN
Dative dérL déraib déraib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization


  • Middle Irish: dér f


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
dér dér
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  1. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*dakro-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 87

Further reading[edit]