saimnieks

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From saime ‎(family, household) +‎ -nieks. Though it is an old compound (already attested in 17th-century sources), it was only introduced in the literary (standard) language in 1862 by J. Alunāns.[1]

Noun[edit]

saimnieks m (1st declension, feminine form: saimniece)

  1. farmer, landowner (the owner of a farm, especially a large one)
    lielie, bagātie, naudīgie saimnieki — big, rich, moneyed farmers
    kalpi neiet apstaigāt Avotu laukus, apskatīties zirgus un ēkas, kā to dara ciemā atbraukušie saimnieki — the servants (farm helpers) don't go around the fields to look at the horses and buildings, the way that the landowners do, when they arrive in the village
  2. owner or tenant, especially of a small business
    iebraucamās vietas saimnieks — inn owner
    viesnīcas saimnieks — hotel owner
    visi apkārtējie restorānu saimnieki zināja, ka pilsoņa Žana Gijo veikalā vienmēr svaiga prece — all the surrounding restaurant owners knew that there always was fresh merchandise (= ingredients) in citizen Žans Gijo's shop
  3. landlord (owner of a building, house, apartment, etc.)
    mēs dzīvojām koka namiņā sētā... tas namiņš nebija mūsu, bet piederēja saimniekam — we lived in a little wooden hut... that hut was not ours, it belonged to (our) landlord
    maza auguma vīrs... skaļi ķīvējas ar mājas saimnieku — a man of short build... quarreled loudly with the landlord
  4. owner, master, boss (person who owns or has the right to use a certain space, room, place)
    kā saimnieks... es torīt atvēru sava kabineta durvis un turpat pie durvīm apstājos: redzēju, ka neesmu vairs saimnieks... uz galda augšpēdus gulēja vācu virsnieka cepure — as the master (of that office) I opened that morning my office's door and immediately stopped at the door: I saw that I was no longer the master... a German officer's hat was lying upside down on the table
  5. owner, master (person who owns a pet)
    kaķis kas ir pamests... parasti vairs citam saimniekam neuzticas un kļūst par īstu, mežonīgu zvēru — a cat that was abandoned... usually does not trust another owner and becomes a true wild beast
  6. owner (person who owns something, e.g., an object)
    vēl jau gan viņš tur šauteni savās rokās, bet Ferdinands saprot, ka saimnieks tai jau ir cits: tas, lielais vīrs ar zilganpelēkajām acīm — though he is holding the gun in his hands, Ferdinands understands that its owner is another (person): that big man with the bluish-gray eyes
  7. master, boss, leader (person who runs, administers, manages, organizes something, making decisions about it)
    lietuviešu tauta kļuva par pilntiesīgu savas zemes saimnieku — the Lithuanian people became the full master of their own land
    pēc staltās gaitas, formas tērpa un izturēšanās spriežot, par kuģa saimnieku pirmajā brīdī varēja noturēt kapteiņa pirmo palīgu — judging by his stately gait, uniform and behavior, one could at first take the first mate for the ship's boss (= captain)
  8. host (person who entertains guests, visitors)
    saimnieks ar ciemiņu beidzot piesēdušies pie galda — the host with (his) guest finally sat at the table
  9. (biology) host (an organism in which a parasite lives)
    katrai blusu sugai ir noteikts saimnieks — every species of flea has a specific host
    Mazākās zaļganās dēles dzīvoja uz zivju ādas un pārtika no saimnieku asinīm — the smaller greenish leeches lived on fish skin and fed from their host's blood

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “saime”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7