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Older sanguīs, later regularised with a short /i/, likely for *sanguins, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁sh₂-én-, oblique stem of *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood), whence also saniēs (ichor; ulcer) via suffixation. The nominative of the original paradigm is likely to be reflected as Old Latin assyr, as(c)er (found in glosses only). It's disputed whether sanguen is the earlier form, but it seems more likely that it's a later reshaping on the analogy of unguen, inguen, since if original, the addition of -s- to it would be reflected as *sanguēs.

Cognate to Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒄯 (ēšḫar), Sanskrit असृज् (ásṛj), Ancient Greek ἔαρ (éar), Old Armenian արիւն (ariwn).

Alternative forms[edit]


  • (Classical):
    • (Conservative) IPA(key): /ˈsan.ɡʷiːs/, [ˈs̠äŋɡʷiːs̠]
    • (Regularizing) IPA(key): /ˈsan.ɡʷis/, [ˈs̠äŋɡʷɪs̠]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈsan.ɡwis/, [ˈsäŋɡwis]
  • (file)
  • Note: the originally long ending vowel also appears as short in hexameter poetry via analogy.


sanguī̆s m (genitive sanguinis); third declension

  1. blood
    • c. 160 CEc. 225 CE, Tertullian, Apologeticus L.13:
      Plūrēs efficimur, quotiēns mētīmur ā vōbīs: sēmen est sanguī̆s Chrīstiānōrum.
      • Translation by Alexander Souter
        We spring up in greater numbers the more we are mown down by you: the blood of the Christians is the seed of a new life.
  2. blood (consanguinity)


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative sanguī̆s sanguinēs
Genitive sanguinis sanguinum
Dative sanguinī sanguinibus
Accusative sanguinem sanguinēs
Ablative sanguine sanguinibus
Vocative sanguī̆s sanguinēs

Derived terms[edit]



  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “sanguīs”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 537

Further reading[edit]

  • sanguis in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • sanguis in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • sanguis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • sanguis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to drip blood; to be deluged with blood: sanguine manare, redundare
    • to shed one's blood for one's fatherland: sanguinem suum pro patria effundere or profundere
    • the victory cost much blood and many wounds, was very dearly bought: victoria multo sanguine ac vulneribus stetit (Liv. 23. 30)