From Old French tumultuous (modern French tumultueux), from Latin tumultuōsus (“restless, turbulent”), from tumultus (“disturbance, uproar, violent commotion, tumult; agitation, disturbance, excitement”) (probably from tumeō (“to swell; to be swollen or turgid; to be ready to burst forth, to be excited or violent”), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *tewh₂- (“to swell”)) + -ōsus (“suffix meaning ‘full of, prone to’ forming adjectives from nouns”).
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /tjʊˈmʌl.tjʊ.əs/
- (General American) IPA(key): /t(j)uˈmʌl.tʃu.əs/, /-ˈməl-/
- Hyphenation: tu‧mult‧u‧ous
- Characterized by loud, confused noise. [from mid 16th c.]
- 1843 December 19, Charles Dickens, “Stave II. The First of the Three Spirits.”, in A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, London: Chapman & Hall, […], OCLC 55746801, page 68:
- The noise in this room was perfectly tumultuous, for there were more children there, than Scrooge in his agitated state of mind could count; and, unlike the celebrated herd in the poem, they were not forty children conducting themselves like one, but every child was conducting itself like forty.
- Causing or characerized by tumult; chaotic, disorderly, turbulent. [from mid 16th c.]
- 2017 March 1, Anthony Zurcher, “Trump Addresses Congress: A Kinder, Gentler President”, in BBC News, archived from the original on 2 February 2018:
- In his first address to a joint session of Congress, after a tumultuous first month in office, Mr [Donald] Trump delivered a conventional speech in a conventional manner.
- (characterized by loud, confused noise): see Thesaurus:quiet
- (causing or characterized by tumult): see Thesaurus:calm