arī

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See also: ari, Ari, arı, ári, arí, and -ari

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Formed from the particle ar with an extra ī (cf. Ancient Greek ἄρ (ár), ἄρα (ára, so, then), with an extra a).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

arī

  1. used to indicate connection, addition; too, also, (in negative sentences) either
    māsai līdzi atnāca arī brālis — together with the sister came also (her) brother
    tas, kas ar vēju nāk, ar vēju arī iet — that which comes with the wind also goes with the wind
    kad iesāki darbu, arī bija pavasaris, tikai cits — when you began the work, it was spring, too, just another (one)
    rāva vienu sērkociņu: tas nedega; rāva otru: tas arī nedegas — he stroke one match: it didn't burn; he stroke another: it didn't burn either
  2. used to indicate addition and concession; too, also, (in negative sentences) either
    galu galā tik slikti arī nemaz nebija, lai redz pasaule, ka viņi nekaunas no nabagiem radiem — in the end, it wasn't so bad either, let the world see that they were not ashamed of their poor relatives
    no iesākuma gan Kārlēns pļaujot cirta sīkāk, palika drusku iepakaļus, bet drīz arī šī starpība nolīdzinājās — in the beginning Kārlēns, (while) mowing, cut more finely, he left a little bit behind, but soon 'also this gap was evened out
  3. used to mark emphasis, intensification; anyway, indeed, even
    Anneli nekur nelaida... kur viņai arī vajadzēja iet! — (they) didn't let Annele go anywhere... where could she go anyway!
    viesulis reiz nopostīja mūsu māju; veca jau arī bija — a whirlwind once destroyed our house; indeed it was old
    dzidrums tumšajās acīs neapdzisa arī tad, kad viņa tās nolaida zemāk — the gleam in (her) dark eyes did not go out even when she lowered them
  4. (as a conjunction) used to link a single element to the preceding utterance; and also..., as well as...
    aizkrējis uz lauku saimnieks, arī saimniece — the landlord ran out of the field, and also the landlady
    katram revolūcijas cīnītājam bijis savs īpatns uzdevums dzīvē, arī sava īpaša, raksturīga dzīva cilvēka fiziskā seja — every revolutionary fighter has their own specific task in life, as well as their own specific, characteristic living person's face
  5. (as a conjunction) used to link a clause, dependent or independent, to the preceding utterance; and, also, as well
    Anna nekā neatbildēja, arī Juris cieta kluss — Anna didn't answer anything, and Juris (also) kept silent
    Vācieši raķetes vairs nelaida. Arī šāvienu nedzirdēja. — The Germans didn't shoot any more rockets. Also no (gun)shots were heard.

Conjunction[edit]

arī

  1. (as part of the coordinating conjunction arī) as well as
    sevišķi paplašinājās kviešu, kukurūzas, kā arī kokvilnas sējumi — particularly expanded were the fields of wheat, corn, as well as cotton
  2. (as part of the coordinating conjunctions ne vien ..., bet arī, ne tikai ..., bet arī, ne tikvien ..., bet arī, tiklab ... arī) not only ... but also, both ... and
    tomāti ir ne vien garšīgi, bet arī noderīgi un veselīgi — tomatoes are not only tasty but also useful and healthy
    Rīgas alus ir slavens ne tikai savā dzimtenē, bet arī tālu aiz tās robežām — Riga beer is famous not only in its homeland, but also far from its borders
    ne tikvien bērna gados, bet arī pieaugusi viņa paturēja to pašu prātu, kaut gan citādā ziņā nekā bērnsnot only in (her) childhood years, but also (as a) grownup she kept the same mind, though in a different way than a child
  3. (as part of the conjunctions kaut arī, lai arī) used to link a subordinate clause to a main clause, indicating a concessive relation between them; syn. lai gan, kaut gan); though, although, even though, albeit
    mākoņi nekad nevar norimt, kaut arī liekas stāvam uz vietas — clouds never fade, though they seem to be (always) standing on the (same) place
    Zaiga ar patiku noklausījās Kalnezera noteiktajos, kaut arī, ka viņai likās, savādajos spriedumos — Zaiga listened with pleasure to Kalnezers' resolute, albeit, as it seemed to her, bizarre, judgments (= observations, opinions)
    lai arī dārzs ir mazliet nolaists, tas tomēr ir skaists — although the garden is a little neglected, it still is beautiful

References[edit]

  1. ^ “arī” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7