tumšs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as tumsa (darkness) (q.v.), made into an adjective. Originally a yo-stem parallel that replaced the oder u-stem form *tumsus, *timsus (cf. dialectal variants timss, timšs, tumss) when u-stems were lost.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

tumšs (def. tumšais, comp. tumšāks, sup. vistumšākais; adv. tumši)

  1. dark (where, when there is insufficient, little or no light; not well lit)
    pagrabā ir tumšs — it is dark in the basement
    istabā bija vēss un tumšs — in the room it was cold and dark
    tumša kāpņu telpa — a dark (= not well lit) staircase
    mājai logi ir tumši — the windows of the house are dark (= not lit)
    mijkrēslis pamazām sabiezēja un mežā kļuva tumšs — the twilight gradually thickened and in the forest it became dark
    ir Avēla stunda, un rudeņos vakari aizvien mēdz būt tumši — it is a late hour, and in autumn the evenings always tend to be dark
    ir jau gluži tumšs, tik tumšs, ka Nora, lai cik vērīgi apkārt lūkodamās, nespēj neko saskatīt — it is already quite dark, so dark that Nora, no matter how strenuously she looked around, could not see anything
  2. dark (such that little light passes through it)
    tumšs stiklsdark glass
    gaisma žilbināja cauri vistumšākajām saulesbrillēm — the light dazzled through the darkest sunglasses
  3. (of light sources) dark (such that it produces insufficient, little or no light)
    tumša spuldzedark (light) bulb
    laukā dziļš vakars... lampa ārā tumša; vai nu būs aizmirsuši iedegt, vai spuldze pagalam — outside (there was) deep night... the lamp outside (was) dark; either they had forgotten to turn it on, or the light bulb was gone
  4. (of objects, their colors) dark (strongly saturated; black, or with a large black admixture)
    tumšs uzvalksdark suit
    tumšs zilumsdark blue (color); dark bruise
    tumši zilsdark blue
  5. (of mental states, thoughts) dark, gloomy, depressing; expressing such characteristics
    tumšas domasdark, gloomy thoughts
    skatiens bija tumšs, ledains — (his) look was dark, icy
  6. (of pain, feelings, etc.) dark (unclear, mysterious, without known causes)
    Annele turējās visiem spēkiem pretī tumšām, aklām bailēm — Annele held on with all (her) forces against the dark, blind fear
    puisī pašā mutuļoja kaut kas tumšs, neskaidrs: viņš nikni dzina zirgus, it kā tajos saskatīdams savu pārestību cēloni — in the young man himself something dark, unclear was bubbling: he drove the horses furiously, as if he saw in them the cause of his grievances
  7. (of people) uneducated, lacking culture, morality; obscurantist, opposed to education, science, progress
    ļaudis ir tumši un māņticīgi, es nezinu, cik patiesības viņu vārdos — the people (there) are so uneducated and superstitious, I don't know how much truth (there is) in their words
    mācītājs redzēja pretrunas savos vārdos, bet cerēja, ka tumšie un nemācītie zvejnieki neko nepamanīs — the pastor saw the contradiction in his (own) words, but he hoped that the uneducated, unschooled fishermen would not notice anything
    tumši, reakcionāri ļaudis, salasījuši dažādus šaubīgus elementus, sarīko Maskavas priekšpilsētā cittautībnieku grautiņusobscurantist, reactionary people, composed of several dubious elements, organized pogroms (against) other nationalities in Moscow's suburbs
  8. dark (associated with something secret, dishonest, criminal; realating to evil)
    tumša pagātnedark past
    tumši spēkidark forces
    pa tumšo — dishonestly; criminally (lit. on the dark)
  9. (of sounds) dark (low-pitched, not sonorous)
    smagi, tumši akordi — heavy, dark chords

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “tumsa” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7