σίδηρος

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unclear and debated. One view compares it with Latin sīdus (constellation, meteorite), with this possibly related to Proto-Indo-European *sweyd- (to sweat), whence Latin sūdor (sweat, moisture), Ancient Greek ἱδρώς (hidrṓs, sweat, perspiration), English sweat. Another theory compares it with Udi zido (iron), indicating a Northeast Caucasian loanword. Finally, the word is very likely of Pre-Greek origin given its semantics, which has been compared with Ancient Greek σίδη (sídē, pomegranate), linked to the reconstruction *sida "red" thereby giving the meaning of σίδηρος (sídēros) as "red metal" (perhaps in relation to its red oxide ores and minerals).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

σῐ́δηρος (sídērosm (genitive σῐδήρου); second declension

  1. iron
    • c. 90 AD, John of Patmos, Book of Revelation 18:12:
      γόμον χρυσοῦ καὶ ἀργύρου καὶ λίθου τιμίου καὶ μαργαρίτου καὶ βυσσίνου καὶ σηρικοῦ καὶ κοκκίνου, καὶ πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐκ ξύλου τιμιωτάτου καὶ χαλκοῦ καὶ σιδήρου καὶ μαρμάρου, []
      gómon khrusoû kaì argúrou kaì líthou timíou kaì margarítou kaì bussínou kaì sērikoû kaì kokkínou, kaì pân xúlon thúïnon kaì pân skeûos elephántinon kaì pân skeûos ek xúlou timiōtátou kaì khalkoû kaì sidḗrou kaì marmárou, []
      The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, []
  2. iron tool, iron implement
  3. sword
  4. sickle
  5. blacksmith's shop, smithy
  6. (figuratively) something hard, a stubborn force

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Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Ancient Greek σίδηρος (sídēros), whence also the vernacular forms Byzantine Greek σίδερον n (síderon) and Greek σίδερο n (sídero). See σίδηρος (sídēros) for the ultimately disputed etymology.

Noun[edit]

σίδηρος (sídirosm

  1. (chemistry) iron (chemical element)

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