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Old Church Slavonic[edit]


From Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bʔutei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuh₂- (see Proto-Indo-European *bʰew-). Baltic cognates include Lithuanian būti and Latvian būt. Other Indo-European cognates include Latin fuī (I was), Ancient Greek φύω (phúō), Sanskrit भवति (bhávati, to become), and Persian بودن (budan, to be).

Suppletive present forms are also inherited; ѥсмь (jesmĭ), from Proto-Slavic *jesmь, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es-. Cognates include Old English wesan (eom, eart, is), Old Norse em, est, es, Gothic 𐌹𐌼 (im), 𐌹𐍃 (is), 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), Avestan ahmi [script needed] (Persian بودن (budan) and است (ast)), Greek εἰμί, εἶ (), ἐστί, Latin esse (sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt), (from which French être, Italian essere, Spanish ser), Lithuanian esu, Albanian jam.


бꙑти (byti)

  1. to be


present imperfective aorist future imperative perfective aorist
1st person sg есмь бѣхъ бѫдѫ бꙑхъ
2nd person sg еси бѣ бѫдеши бѫди бꙑстъ (бꙑ)
3rd person sg естъ бѣаше бѣ бѫдетъ бѫди бꙑстъ (бꙑ)
1st person dual есвѣ бѣховѣ бѫдевѣ бѫдѣвѣ бꙑховѣ
2nd person dual еста бѣста бѫдета бѫдѣта бꙑста
3rd person dual есте бѣашете бѣсте бѫдете бѫдѣте бꙑсте
1st person pl есмъ бѣхомъ бѫдемъ бѫдѣмъ бꙑхомъ
2nd person pl есте бѣсте бѫдете бѫдѣте бꙑсте
3rd person pl сѫтъ бѣахѫ бѣшѧ бѫдѫтъ бѫдѫ бꙑшѧ


masculine sg neuter sg feminine sg
present active participle сꙑ сꙑ сѫшти
resultative participle бꙑлъ бꙑло бꙑла
past active participle бꙑвъ бꙑвъ бꙑвъши
substantive бꙑтьѥ, бꙑтиѥ

не бꙑти (negative conjugation)

singular dual plural
1st person нѣсмь нѣсвѣ нѣсмъ
2nd person нѣси нѣста нѣсте
3rd person нѣстъ нѣсте не сѫтъ