бꙑти

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Old Church Slavonic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bū́ˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuh₂-. Baltic cognates include Lithuanian būti and Latvian būt. Other Indo-European cognates include Latin fuī (I was), Ancient Greek φύω (phúō), Sanskrit भवति (bhávati, to become), and Persian بودن(bûdan, to be).

Verb[edit]

бꙑти (bytiimpf

  1. to be
    • from the Life of Constantine:
      филосѡѳе, вѣмь тѧ троудна соуща, но достоить тебѣ тамо ити.
      filosoθe, věmĭ tę trudna sušta, no dostoitĭ tebě tamo iti.
      Philosopher, I see that you are weary, but it does suit you to go there.

Conjugation[edit]

present imperfective aorist future imperative perfective aorist
1st person sg есмь (esmĭ) бѣахъ (běaxŭ) бѣхъ (běxŭ) бѫдѫ (bǫdǫ) бѫдѣмь (bǫděmĭ) бꙑхъ (byxŭ)
2nd person sg еси (esi) бѣаше (běaše) бѣ () бѫдеши (bǫdeši) бѫди (bǫdi) бꙑстъ (bystŭ) / бꙑ (by)
3rd person sg естъ (estŭ) бѣаше (běaše) бѣ () бѫдетъ (bǫdetŭ) бѫди (bǫdi) бꙑстъ (bystŭ) / бꙑ (by)
1st person dual есвѣ (esvě) бѣаховѣ (běaxově) бѣховѣ (běxově) бѫдевѣ (bǫdevě) бѫдѣвѣ (bǫděvě) бꙑховѣ (byxově)
2nd person dual еста (esta) бѣашета (běašeta) бѣста (běsta) бѫдета (bǫdeta) бѫдѣта (bǫděta) бꙑста (bysta)
3rd person dual есте (este) бѣашете (běašete) бѣсте (běste) бѫдете (bǫdete) бѫдѣте (bǫděte) бꙑсте (byste)
1st person pl есмъ (esmŭ) бѣахомъ (běaxomŭ) бѣхомъ (běxomŭ) бѫдемъ (bǫdemŭ) бѫдѣмъ (bǫděmŭ) бꙑхомъ (byxomŭ)
2nd person pl есте (este) бѣашете (běašete) бѣсте (běste) бѫдете (bǫdete) бѫдѣте (bǫděte) бꙑсте (byste)
3rd person pl сѫтъ (sǫtŭ) бѣахѫ (běaxǫ) бѣшѧ (běšę) бѫдѫтъ (bǫdǫtŭ) бѫдѫ (bǫdǫ) бꙑшѧ (byšę)

participles

masculine sg neuter sg feminine sg
present active participle сꙑ (sy) сꙑ (sy) сѫшти (sǫšti)
resultative participle бꙑлъ (bylŭ) бꙑло (bylo) бꙑла (byla)
past active participle бꙑвъ (byvŭ) бꙑвъ (byvŭ) бꙑвъши (byvŭši)
substantive () бꙑтьѥ, бꙑтиѥ (bytĭje, bytije) ()

не бꙑти (negative conjugation)

singular dual plural
1st person нѣсмь (něsmĭ) нѣсвѣ (něsvě) нѣсмъ (něsmŭ)
2nd person нѣси (něsi) нѣста (něsta) нѣсте (něste)
3rd person нѣстъ (něstŭ) нѣсте (něste) не сѫтъ (ne sǫtŭ)

Usage notes[edit]

Attested бѣ-forms[1][2][3][4][5][6]
бѣхъ ⰱⱑ[7] ⰱⱑ[8], бѣше[9], бѣѣше[10], бѣаше[11]
? ? (бѣста[12]), (бѣаста[13]), ⰱⱑⱄⱅⰵ[14], ⰱⱑⰰⱎⰵⱅⰵ[15]
ⰱⱑⱈⱁⰿⱏ[16] ? бѣшѧ[17], бѣхѫ[18], бѣѣхѫ[19], бѣахѫ[20]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Bulgarian: съм (sǎm)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karl Meyer (1935), “бѣхъ, бѣ, бѣ, бѣаше, бѣхомъ, бѣшѧ, бѣахѫ, бѣста, бѣаста”, in Altkirchenslavisch-griechisches Wörterbuch des Codex Suprasliensis (in German), Glückstadt, Hamburg: Verlag J. J. Augustin, page 21
  2. ^ Сергѣй Северьяновъ (1922), “бꙑти”, in Синайская псалтырь. Глаголическій памятникъ XI вѣка. (in Russian), Saint Petersburg (Petrograd): Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Россійской Академіи Наукъ, page 193
  3. ^ Vatroslav Jagić (1883), “бꙑти”, in Памятникъ глаголической письменности. Маріинское четвероевангеліе съ примѣчаніями и приложеніями. (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, page 482
  4. ^ Вячеславъ Щепкинъ (1903), “бꙑти”, in Саввина Книга (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Императорской Академіи Наукъ, page 156
  5. ^ А. Востоковъ (1843), “бѣ, бѣ, бѣаста, бѣахѫ, бѣаше, бѣста, бѣсте, бѣхъ бѣхѫ, бѣше, бѣшѧ”, in Остромирово Евангеліе 1056-57 года. Съ приложеніемъ Греческаго текста Евангелій и съ грамматическими объясненіями. (in Russian), Санктпетербургъ: Типографія Императорской Академіи Наукъ, page 52
  6. ^ бꙑти”, in http://syntacticus.org
  7. ^ ⱅⱏⰹ ⰱⱑ (line -13, page 77)”, in Codex Marianus (in Old Church Slavonic), 1016±16, page Mt:26:69
  8. ^ ⰱⱑ (page 100, line -7)”, in Codex Zographensis (in Old Church Slavonic), 1000±33, page Jn:11:1
  9. ^ Сава, editor (1050±50), “бѣше (line 7, page 172)”, in Sava's book (in Old Church Slavonic), page Jn:12:2
  10. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣѣше”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 46, line 30
  11. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣаше”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 123, line 26
  12. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣста”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 428, line 30
  13. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣаста”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 204, line 5
  14. ^ ⰱⱑⱄⱅⰵ (line 14, page 69)”, in Codex Assemanius (in Old Church Slavonic), 10xx?, page Mt:4:18
  15. ^ ⰱⱑⰰⱎⰵⱅⰵ (page 153, line -5)”, in Codex Zographensis (in Old Church Slavonic), 1000±33, page Mk:1:16
  16. ^ ⰴⰾⱏⰶⱐⱀⰻ ⰱⱑⱈⱁⰿⱏ ⱄⱏⱅⰲⱁⱃⰻⱅⰻ (page 388, line -9)”, in Codex Zographensis (in Old Church Slavonic), 1000±33
  17. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣшѧ”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 20, line 17
  18. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “прикладаѥма бѣхѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 397, line 24
  19. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣѣхѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 154, line 13
  20. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣахѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis (in Old Church Slavonic), page 2, line 28
  • Андрей Бояджиев, Старобългарска читанка, София, 2016.

Further reading[edit]