под-

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See also: под

Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • подо- (podo-) (before certain consonant clusters)

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *podъ-; see *podъ for further information.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • под-: IPA(key): [pəd] (before vowels and voiced consonants)
  • под-: IPA(key): [pət] (before voiceless consonants)
  • по́д-: IPA(key): [ˈpod] (when stressed, before vowels and voiced consonants)
  • по́д-: IPA(key): [ˈpot] (when stressed, before voiceless consonants)

Prefix[edit]

под- (pod-)

  1. (used with verbs) upwards (describing an action of moving from the bottom up)
    под- (pod-) + ‎бро́сить pf (brósitʹ, to throw) → ‎подбро́сить pf (podbrósitʹ, to throw upwards)
  2. (used with verbs) closer (describing an action of approaching to an entity)
    под- (pod-) + ‎идти́ impf (idtí, to go (by walking)) → ‎подойти́ pf (podojtí, to walk up to, to approach (by walking))
  3. (used with verbs) adding (describing an action of adding more entity)
    под- (pod-) + ‎-ба́вить (-bávitʹ) → ‎подба́вить pf (podbávitʹ, to add, replenish)
  4. (used with verbs) (describing a meaning that shows a finished action or an obtainment of a result)
    под- (pod-) + ‎стричь impf (stričʹ, to cut) → ‎подстри́чь pf (podstríčʹ, to cut)
    под- (pod-) + ‎писа́ть impf (pisátʹ, to write) → ‎подписа́ть pf (podpisátʹ, to sign, to subscribe (in the sense of writing one's name with a result))
  5. (used with verbs) (describing an action of copying or following someone's action)
    под- (pod-) + ‎да (da, yes) + ‎-кать (-katʹ, suffix forming verbs from expressions) + ‎-ивать (-ivatʹ, imperfectivizing suffix) → ‎подда́кивать impf (poddákivatʹ, to say yes, to assent (in the sense echoing "yes"))
  6. (used with verbs) (describing an existence of the certain action that is weak, invisible, hidden or incomplete)
    под- (pod-) + ‎уста́ть pf (ustátʹ, to get tired) → ‎подуста́ть pf (podustátʹ, to get tired slightly or lightly)
    под- (pod-) + ‎слать pf (slatʹ, to send, dispatch) → ‎подосла́ть pf (podoslátʹ, to send something (secretly))

Prefix[edit]

под- (pod-)

  1. takes nouns, produces nouns or adjectives: under-, sub- (referring to literal position under something, being under the influence of something, occupying a title or position below a superior, etc.)
    под- (pod-) + ‎земля́ (zemljá, ground) + ‎-ный (-nyj) → ‎подзе́мный (podzémnyj, underground)
    под- (pod-) + ‎гру́ппа (grúppa, group) → ‎подгру́ппа (podgrúppa, subgroup)
    под- (pod-) + ‎власть (vlastʹ, authority, control) + ‎-ный (-nyj) → ‎подвла́стный (podvlástnyj, subjected, dependant)
    под- (pod-) + ‎Карпа́ты (Karpáty, Carpathians (mountains)) + ‎-ье (-ʹje) → ‎Подкарпа́тье (Podkarpátʹje, Subcarpathia (region surrounding the Carpathian mountains))
  2. takes adjectives, produces adverbs: completely
    • под- (pod-) + ‎чи́стый (čístyj, clean) + ‎-у́ю (-úju, feminine accusative ending) → ‎подчисту́ю (podčistúju, without remainder)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In the meaning of closer, only use под- when the subject is in the sight range of the object of interest, and then moves even closer towards it.

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]