دشمن

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Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic дүшмән
Roman düşmən
Perso-Arabic دوشمن, دشمن

Noun[edit]

دشمن (düşmən) (definite accusative دشمنی(düşməni), plural دشمنلر(düşmənlər))

  1. Arabic spelling of düşmən (enemy)

Declension[edit]


Baluchi[edit]

Noun[edit]

دشمن (dušman)

  1. enemy

See also[edit]


Ottoman Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • دشمن (düşman)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persian دشمن(došman) (compare Avar тушман (tušman), Azerbaijani düşmən, Baluchi دژمن(dužman), دشمن(dušman), Bashkir дошман (došman), Bengali দুশমন (duśmôn), Chuvash тӑшман (tăšman), Crimean Tatar duşman, Gujarati દુશ્મન (duśman), Kazakh дұшпан (duşpan), Kumyk душман (duşman), Northern Kurdish dijmin, دوژمن(dujmin), Macedonian душман (dušman), Moksha душман (dušman), Pashto دوښمن(duӽmán), دښمن(doӽmán), Punjabi ਦੁਸ਼ਮਣ (duśmaṇ), Russian душма́н (dušmán), Sindhi دشمن‎, Tajik душман (dušman), Turkmen duşman, Urdu دشمن(duśman), Uyghur دۈشمەن(düshmen), Uzbek dushman, Zazaki dişmen).

Noun[edit]

دشمن (düşmen)

  1. enemy, foe

Descendants[edit]


Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian [script needed] (dwšmn'), [script needed] (dwšmyn'), 𐫅𐫇𐫢𐫖𐫏𐫗(dwšmyn /dušmēn/, enemy), from Proto-Iranian *dušmánah, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dus- (bad) + *men- (mind).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Dari Persian دشمن
Iranian Persian
Tajik душман (dušman)

دشمن (došman) (plural دشمنان(došmanân))

  1. enemy

Inflection[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Borrowed terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973) , “թշնամի”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, pages 191–192

Urdu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persian دشمن(došman).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

دُشْمَن (duśmanm (Hindi spelling दुश्मन)

  1. enemy, foe
  2. opponent
    Synonym: مُخالف(muk͟hālif)

Related terms[edit]

Declension[edit]

Declension of دشمن
singular plural
direct دُشمن(duśman) دُشمن(duśman)
oblique دُشمن(duśman) دُشمنوں(duśmanō̃)
vocative دُشمن(duśman) دُشمنو(duśmanō)

References[edit]

  • S. W. Fallon (1879) , “دشمن”, in A New Hindustani-English Dictionary, Banaras, London: Trubner and Co.
  • دشمن”, in اُردُو لُغَت (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • Platts, John T. (1884) , “دشمن”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971) , “دشمن”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary (in Urdu), Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.
  • دشمن”, in Rekhta Urdu Dictionary (in Urdu), Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2021.
  • John Shakespear (1834) , “دشمن”, in A dictionary, Hindustani and English: with a copious index, fitting the work to serve, also, as a dictionary of English and Hindustani., 3rd edition, London