دشمن

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Azerbaijani[edit]

Noun[edit]

دشمن (düşmən) (definite accusative دشمنی(düşməni), plural دشمنلر(düşmənlər))

  1. Arabic spelling of düşmən (enemy)

Declension[edit]


Baluchi[edit]

Noun[edit]

دشمن (dušman)

  1. enemy

See also[edit]


Khalaj[edit]

Noun[edit]

دُشمَن (duşman) (definite accusative دُشمَنؽ‎, plural دُشمَنلار‎)

  1. Arabic spelling of duşman (enemy)

Declension[edit]


Ottoman Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persian دشمن(došman) (compare Avar тушман (tušman), Azerbaijani düşmən, Baluchi دژمن(dužman), دشمن(dušman), Bashkir дошман (doşman), Bengali দুশমন (duśmôn), Chuvash тӑшман (tăšman), Crimean Tatar duşman, Gujarati દુશ્મન (duśman), Kazakh дұшпан (dūşpan), Kumyk душман (duşman), Northern Kurdish dijmin, دوژمن(dujmin), Macedonian душман (dušman), Moksha душман (dušman), Pashto دوښمن(duӽmán), دښمن(doӽmán), Punjabi ਦੁਸ਼ਮਣ (duśmaṇ), Russian душма́н (dušmán), Sindhi دشمن‎, Southern Altai тушман (tušman), Tajik душман (dušman), Turkmen duşman, Urdu دشمن(duśman), Uyghur دۈشمەن(düshmen), Uzbek dushman, Zazaki dışmen).

Noun[edit]

دشمن (düşmen, düşman)

  1. enemy, foe
    • 1927 October, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nutuk[1], page 500:
      دشمنلر و خلیفه‌لر برابر اوله‌بیلیرلر و هر شی یاپمغه تشبث ایده‌بیلیرلر. فقط ، یكی توركیه‌نك طرز اداره‌سنی ، سیاستنی ، قوتی قطعیاً صارصه‌مزلر.‎‎
      Düşmanlar ve halifeler beraber olabilirler ve her şey yapmaya teşebbüs edebilirler. Fakat, yeñi Türkiye'nin tarz idaresini, siyasetini, kuvveti katiyen sarsamazlar.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Descendants[edit]


Persian[edit]

Persian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fa

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian [script needed] (dwšmn'), [script needed] (dwšmyn'), 𐫅𐫇𐫢𐫖𐫏𐫗(dwšmyn /dušmēn/, enemy), from Proto-Iranian *dušmánah, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dus- (bad) + *men- (mind), but compare English man, Sanskrit मनु (manu, thinking, wise, intelligent).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Dari دشمن
Iranian Persian
Tajik душман (dušman)

دشمن (došman) (plural دشمنان(došmanân))

  1. enemy

Inflection[edit]

    Enclitic-attached forms of دشمن (došman)
    Basic forms of دشمن (došman)
singular plural
bare دشمن
(došmán)
دشمن‌ها
(došman-hấ)
دشمنا
(došmanấ)
definitive direct object دشمن را
(došmán râ)
دشمن رو
(došmáno)
دشمن‌ها را
(došman-hấ râ)
دشمنا رو
(došmanấ ro)
ezâfe دشمن
(došmán-e)
دشمن‌های
(došman-hấ-ye)
دشمنای
(došmanấ-ye)
marked indefinite
or relative definite
دشمنی
(došmán-i)
دشمن‌هایی
(došmanấn-i, došman-hấ-i)
دشمنایی
(došmanấi)
Colloquial.
    Possessive forms of دشمن (došman)
singular plural
1st person singular
(“my”)
دشمنم
(došmánam)
دشمن‌هایم
(došman-hấyam)
دشمن‌هام، دشمنام
(došmanấm)
2nd person singular
(“your”)
دشمنت
(došmánat)
[Term?]
(došmánet)
دشمن‌هایت
(došman-hấyat)
دشمن‌هات، دشمنات
(došmanất)
3rd person singular
(“his, her, its”)
دشمنش
(došmánaš)
[Term?]
(došmáneš)
دشمن‌هایش
(došman-hấyaš)
دشمن‌هاش، دشمناش
(došmanấš)
1st plural
(“our”)
دشمنمان
(došmánemân)
دشمنمون
(došmánemun)
دشمن‌هایمان
(došman-hấyemân)
دشمن‌هامون، دشمنامون
(došmanấmun)
2nd plural
(“your”)
دشمنتان
(došmánetân)
دشمنتون
(došmánetun)
دشمن‌هایتان
(došman-hấyetân)
دشمن‌هاتون، دشمناتون
(došmanấtun)
3rd plural
(“their”)
دشمنشان
(došmánešân)
دشمنشون
(došmánešun)
دشمن‌هایشان
(došman-hấyešân)
دشمن‌هاشون، دشمناشون
(došmanấšun)
Colloquial.
    Predicative forms of دشمن (došman)
singular plural
1st person
(“I am, we are”)
دشمنم
(došmánam)
دشمنیم
(došmánim)
2nd person
(“you are”)
دشمنی
(došmáni)
دشمنید
(došmánid)
دشمنین
(došmánin)
3rd person
(“he/she/it is, they are”)
دشمن است
(došmán ast)
دشمنه
(došmáne)
دشمنند
(došmánand)
دشمنن
(došmánan)
Colloquial.

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973), “թշնամի”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, a reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, pages 191–192

Urdu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persian دشمن(došman).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

دُشْمَن (duśmanm (Hindi spelling दुश्मन)

  1. enemy, foe
  2. opponent
    Synonym: مُخالف(muxālif)

Declension[edit]

Declension of دشمن
singular plural
direct دُشمن(duśman) دُشمن(duśman)
oblique دُشمن(duśman) دُشمنوں(duśmanō̃)
vocative دُشمن(duśman) دُشمنو(duśmanō)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • S. W. Fallon (1879), “دشمن”, in A New Hindustani-English Dictionary, Banaras, London: Trubner and Co.
  • دشمن”, in اُردُو لُغَت (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • Platts, John T. (1884), “دشمن”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971), “دشمن”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary‎, Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.
  • دشمن”, in Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2023.
  • John Shakespear (1834), “دشمن”, in A dictionary, Hindustani and English: with a copious index, fitting the work to serve, also, as a dictionary of English and Hindustani, 3rd edition, London: J.L. Cox and Son, OCLC 875051092