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From Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- ‎(to be).


अस्ति ‎(ásti) ‎(class 2 present, root अस्)

  1. to be
  2. to live
  3. to exist, be present
  4. to take place, happen
  5. to abide, dwell, stay
  6. to belong to (+ genitive or dative)
  7. to fall to the share of. happen to any one (+ genitive)
  8. to be equal to (+ dative)
  9. to turn out, tend towards any result, prove (with dative)
  10. to become
  11. to be (i.e. used as copula, but not only with adjective, but also with adverb)


present tense (gaṇa #2 / parasmaipada)
person singular dual plural
1st person (अहम्) अस्मि (ásmi) ‎((aham) asmi (ásmi)) (आवाम्) स्वः (svaḥ) ‎((āvām) svaḥ (svaḥ)) (वयम्) समः (smaḥ) ‎((vayam) samaḥ (smaḥ))
2nd person (त्वम्) असि (asi) ‎((tvam) asi (asi)) (युवाम्) स्थः (sthaḥ) ‎((yuvām) sthaḥ (sthaḥ)) (यूयम्) स्थ (stha) ‎((yūyam) stha (stha))
3rd person (सः/, तत्, सा) अस्ति (asti) ‎((saḥ/sa, tat, sā) asti (asti)) (तौ, ते, ते) स्तः (staḥ) ‎((tau, te, te) staḥ (staḥ)) (ते, तानि, ताः) सन्ति (santi) ‎((te, tāni, tāḥ) santi (santi))


  • Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, page 122