Appendix:Polish nouns

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Polish nouns have lexical gender and can be masculine personal, masculine animate, masculine inanimate, feminine or neuter. They inflect by number and case. There are 7 cases with the following traditional order:

Masculine nouns[edit]

  • Regular. There is lot of variance of masculine forms and it is impossible to divide them neatly into a few declension groups. Here they are divided by gender—accusative is always equal to nominative in inanimate masculine gender, to genitive in personal masculine gender, and to genitive in singular and nominative in plural in animate masculine gender.

Feminine nouns[edit]

Native declension of nouns ending in -a[edit]

Basic declension[edit]

In the following description, we consider the word without the final -a.

  • Genitive singular adds -y.
  • Dative singular palatalizes (softens) the final consonant cluster and adds -e, -i or -y. See below for a list of palatalizations.
  • Acusative singular adds .
  • Instrumental singular adds .
  • Locative singular is always the same as dative singular.
  • Vocative singular adds -o.
  • Nominative plural adds -y, -e or -i depending on the final consonant. If it is k or g, the ending is -i. If the consonant is hard, e.g. n, m, z, the ending is -y. If it is palatalized (soft), such as ni, si, zi, the ending is -e.
  • Genitive plural usually does not add anything, but sometimes adds -i depending on the final consonant cluster. A popular cluster that requires -i is wl, found in budowla, hodowla.
  • Dative plural adds -om.
  • Accusative plural is the same as nominative plural.
  • Instrumental plural always adds -ami.
  • Locative plural always adds -ach.
  • Vocative plural is the same as nominative plural.

List of palatalizations in the dative and locative[edit]

  • -ba → -bie
  • -bia → -bi
  • -ca → -cy
  • -cha → -sze
  • -cia → -ci
  • -cza → -czy
  • -da → -dzie
  • -dza → -dzy
  • -dzia → -dzi
  • -dża → -dży
  • -fa → -fie
  • -ga → -dze
  • -ja → -ji
  • -ka → -ce
  • -la → -li
  • -ła → -le
  • -ma → -mie
  • -na → -nie
  • -pa → -pie
  • -pia → -pi
  • -ra → -rze
  • -rza → -rzy
  • -sa → -sie
  • -sia → -si
  • -sła → śle
  • -sna → śnie
  • -sma → śmie
  • -sta → -ście
  • -sza → -szy
  • -ta → -cie
  • -wa → -wie
  • -za → -zie
  • -zda → ździe
  • -zia → -zi
  • -zła → -źle
  • -zma → -zmie
  • -zna → -źnie
  • -ża → -ży

Moving e[edit]

In some words, an e is inserted in the genitive plural to break up a final consonant cluster.

Shift of o to ó[edit]

In some words ending in -owa, -oba, -ota, the o in the final syllable shifts to ó in the genitive plural. This change happens in some words and not in others, and is not predictable. Examples include krowa, sowa, budowa, dąbrowa, osoba, robota, sobota, cnota. Counterexamples where this phenomenon does NOT happen include grota, zgryzota.

Latinate feminine noun declension[edit]

Many nouns that end in -ia are borrowed from Latin and have a special declension that adds a geminated i.

Declension of nouns ending in a consonant[edit]

(to be written)

Feminine ść noun declension[edit]


singular plural singular plural
Nominative długość długośc·i miłość miłośc·i
Genitive długośc·i długośc·i miłośc·i miłośc·i
Dative długośc·i długośc·iom miłośc·i miłośc·iom
Accusative długość długośc·i miłość miłośc·i
Instrumental długośc·ią długośc·iami miłośc·ią miłośc·iami
Locative długośc·i długośc·iach miłośc·i miłośc·iach
Vocative długośc·i długośc·i miłośc·i miłośc·i

Neuter nouns[edit]