- Hanks, Patrick, editor (2003) , “Fries”, in Dictionary of American Family Names, New York City: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
From Middle Dutch Friese, but also Vriese, Vrese, from Old Dutch *Frieso, probably via Old Saxon *Frēso. Borrowed and re-borrowed, at varying times in history, from Old Frisian Frēsa, Frīsa (modern West Frisian Fries).
Initial v- is expected from natural development from Old Dutch, in which voicing of initial f- to v- occurs naturally. The modern form with f- is probably influenced by the Frisian endonym. However, the original voiced consonant is retained in the common surname de Vries.
- a Frisian, member of a Germanic people; a speaker of one of the Frisian languages
- a West Frisian specifically; a speaker of the West Frisian language
- Short form for various names relating to Friesland or Frisians, such as the bovine race.
In the Netherlands, Fries most often refers implicitly to the Frisians with whom Dutch people are most familiar, the West Frisians. Note that the general meaning of Dutch West-Fries refers to the region in North Holland.
- Vries (obsolete)
From Fries + -s.
- Frisian (any member of the Frisian people)
- West Frisian specifically (of the Frisian part of the Netherlands)
|Inflection of Fries|
- frieze (sculptured or richly ornamented band)
- “Fries” in Duden online
Fries c (plural Friezen)
- Frisian person
- “Fries (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011
- Oxford English Dictionary, 1884–1928, and First Supplement, 1933.
- * Markey, Thomas L. (1981): Frisians