Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kap-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unknown; possibly of substrate origin, as evidenced by the a-grade[3], or perhaps onomatopoeic, compare *gʰabʰ- (to seize)[4] as so-called "chiming roots"[5].

Root[edit]

*kap-[6][7][5]

  1. to seize, hold

Derived terms[edit]

  • *kap-yé-ti (to be seized, held, ye-present) (see there for further descendants)
  • *kap-eh₁yé-ti (eh₁ye-stative)[8]
    • Germanic: *habjaną (to have, hold) (see there for further descendants)
  • *kap-nó-s (harbour)[5]
    • Celtic: *kawnos[5]
      • Old Irish: cúan (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *habnō (< *kapn-éh₂) (see there for further descendants)
  • *káp-ōl ~ *kap-én-s
    • Indo-Iranian: *kapā́las (head, skull; bowl) (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Germanic: *henþō[11] (< *kpen-téh₂?)
      • Old English: hion (skull)
      • North Frisian: hann (lobe of the brain)
  • *káp-wl̥ ~ *kap-wén-s (head)
    • Germanic: *habulô
      • West Germanic: *habulō (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Celtic: *kʷennom (< *kpwen-nó-m?) (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*keh₂p-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 344–345
  2. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 79
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Schrijver, Peter. 1997. "Animal, vegetable and mineral: some Western European substratum words". In: Lubotsky, A. Sound Law and Analogy, pp. 293–316. Amsterdam/Atlanta.
  4. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “?*ĝʰeHb-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 195
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  6. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “kap-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 527-529
  7. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*kap-”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 270
  8. 8.0 8.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “caput, -itis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 91
  9. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “κάπτω”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 640
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*habanō-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 196-197
  11. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*xenþō(n)”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 169
  12. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “κήπος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 688
  13. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “κώπη”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 815-816