bāls

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See also: bals, BALs, báls, and båls

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a parallel form to an older adjective *bals (which disappeared probably because of homophony with balss “voice,” but left related terms like the verbs balot, balēt “to bleach, to fade,” balināt “to whiten, to blanch”), from the same source as the adjective balts (white) (q.v.). Note that the long/short parallel forms apparently reflect an older state of affairs: alongside Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (shiny, white), the source of *bals and balts, there was also *bʰa- (< *bʰeh₂-), from which Proto-Baltic *bāl- and Latvian bāls. The original meaning was probably wider (closer to “white”), but the co-existence with balts restricted it to its current range.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

bāls (definite bālais, comparative bālāks, superlative visbālākais, adverb bāli)

  1. (of people) pale (with lighter, whiter color on the face or skin than normal; without redness; also, implicitly, unhealthy)
    slimniekam ir bāla sejathe patient has a pale face
    bāls kā audekls, krīts, drēbe, līķis, nāvepale like a canvas, chalk, cloth, a corpse, death (= very pale)
    bērns auga, bija bāls kā pagrabā uzdīdzis stādsthe boy grew, he was pale as a plant grown in the basement
    spoguli paskatījies, viņš vairs nepazina sevi: bāls, kā no slimības gultas piecēlies cilvēks iekritušām acīm raudzījās viņam pretim... tā cilvēka vaigos vairs nebija sārtumalooking at the mirror, he could not recognize himself anymore: a person pale as one who stood up from a sick bed, with hollow eyes, looked at him... on that person's cheeks there was no redness
  2. pale, light (not having brightness, not having bright colors)
    bāli pelēki mākoņipale gray clouds
    kombinēt spilgtas un bālas krāsasto combine bright and pale colors
    mazas puķītes ar bāliem ziediemsmall plants with pale flowers
    aiz loga stāv bālā miglas sienastanding outside the window was the pale wall of fog
  3. pale, dim, dull, faint (without brightness)
    bāls mēnessthe pale moon
    platā, zemā maizes krāsnī vēl gailējas bālas aizkura oglesin the wide, low bread oven some pale (= faint) kindling coal
    mākoņu spraugās šur un tur iemirgojās bālas zvaigznesin the cracks in the clouds here and there (a few) pale (= faint) stars shone
  4. (usually of works of art) weak, poor, not interesting (without bright, interesting features)
    loma ir neizstrādāta, bālathe role is undeveloped, pale (= weak)
    bālas un nenozīmīgas romāna nodaļaspale (= weak) and insignificant novel chapters
    pirmajās izrādēs vēl ir bālas un sasteigtas vietasin the first performances there still are pale (= weak) and premature places (= parts)
    dzejolis ir bāls un nekā jauna lasītājam nedodthe verse is pale (= weak) and gives nothing new to the reader

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “bāls”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7