levis

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See also: Levis, Lévis, and Levi's

Esperanto[edit]

Verb[edit]

levis

  1. past of levi

Ido[edit]

Verb[edit]

levis

  1. past of levar

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *leɣʷis (with possible contamination from *breɣʷis), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lengʰwih₂-, from *h₁léngʰus, from *h₁lengʷʰ- (lightweight). Cognates include Sanskrit लघु (laghú), Ancient Greek ἐλᾰφρός, ἐλᾰχῠ́ς (elaphrós, elakhús) and Old English lēoht (English light).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

levis (neuter leve, comparative levior, superlative levissimus, adverb leviter); third-declension two-termination adjective

  1. (literally) light, not heavy
    c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 2.10:
    levis armaturae Numidas
    the light-armed Numidians
    Antonym: gravis
  2. (transferred sense)
    1. (usually poetic) easy to digest
    2. quick, swift, fleet, nimble, rapid
      Synonyms: agilis, vēlōx, pernīx, prōmptus, properus, facilis
      Antonym: lentus
    3. (usually poetic) slight, trifling, small
      8 CE, Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.180:
      levis tactus
      a slight, gentle touch
  3. (figuratively)
    1. (Classical Latin) light, trivial, trifling, unimportant, inconsiderable, slight, little, petty, easy, dispensable
      c. 54 CE, Seneca the Younger, Phaedra 607:
      Curae leues locuntur, ingentes stupent.
      Trivial concerns talk, great ones are speechless.
    2. light, light-minded, capricious, fickle, inconstant, unreliable, false
      Synonym: mendāx
    3. (rare) mild, gentle, pleasant
      • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 3.17-18:
        dum sedet, umbrōsae salicēs volucrēsque canōrae
        fēcērunt somnōs et leve murmur aquae
        While she sits, the shady willows, the songs of birds,
        and the gentle murmur of the water invite slumber.
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Inflection[edit]

Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative levis leve levēs levia
Genitive levis levium
Dative levī levibus
Accusative levem leve levēs
levīs
levia
Ablative levī levibus
Vocative levis leve levēs levia
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Balkan Romance:
    • Proto-Romanian: *lieu
      • Aromanian: lishor
      • Romanian: ușor
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Padanian:
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:
    • Old Spanish: lieve, lief (apocopic variant)
      • Spanish: leve (possibly learned)
    • Portuguese: leve
  • Vulgar Latin: (see there for further descendants)

Etymology 2[edit]

Uncertain. Possibly from Proto-Italic *lēiwis, from Proto-Indo-European *leh₁y-u- (smooth) and cognate to Ancient Greek λεῖος (leîos, smooth, plain, level, hairless, soft), Ancient Greek λίς (lís, smooth).[1] Or from Proto-Indo-European *h₂leyH- (to smear) and cognate to Latin līmus (mud, slime, muck), English slime, Ancient Greek λίμνη (límnē, marsh).

Likely cognate to Latin oblīvīscor (forget).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

lēvis (neuter lēve); third-declension two-termination adjective

  1. (literally, Classical Latin) smooth, not rough, smoothed, shining, rubbed
    Antonym: asper
    1. (poetic) slippery
      29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 5.328:
      levi cum sanguine Nisus labitur infelix
    2. (poetic) without hair, beardless
      Synonym: imberbis
    3. (poetic) youthful, delicate, beautiful; finely dressed, spruce, effeminate
  2. (transferred sense, rare) rubbed smooth, ground down, softened, soft
  3. (Classical Latin, rare) (of speech) smooth, flowing
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Inflection[edit]

Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative lēvis lēve lēvēs lēvia
Genitive lēvis lēvium
Dative lēvī lēvibus
Accusative lēvem lēve lēvēs
lēvīs
lēvia
Ablative lēvī lēvibus
Vocative lēvis lēve lēvēs lēvia
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • levis”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • levis”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • levis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • levis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a man of character, with a strong personality: vir constans, gravis (opp. homo inconstans, levis)
    • light infantry: milites levis armaturae
    • (ambiguous) men of sound opinions: homines graves (opp. leves)
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “lēvis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 336-337