protocol

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Middle French protocolle, protocole (document, record), from Late Latin protocollum (the first sheet of a volume (on which contents and errata were written)), from Byzantine Greek πρωτόκολλον (prōtókollon, first sheet glued onto a manuscript), from πρῶτος (prôtos, first) + κόλλα (kólla, glue).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

protocol (countable and uncountable, plural protocols)

  1. (now chiefly historical) The minutes, or official record, of a negotiation or transaction; especially a document drawn up officially which forms the legal basis for subsequent agreements based on it. [from 15th c.]
    • 1842, Thomas Campbell, Frederick the Great and his Times, vol. II, p. 47:
      Another account says that, on the morning of the 31st of May, the king delivered to the prince-royal the crown, the sceptre, and the key of his treasure and gave him his blessing. The privy-counsillor Vockerodt drew up at his desire a protocol of the transaction.
  2. (international law, now rare) An official record of a diplomatic meeting or negotiation; later specifically, a draft document setting out agreements to be signed into force by a subsequent formal treaty. [from 17th c.]
    • 1970, Matthew Smith Anderson, The Great Powers and the Near East, 1774-1923, p. 32:
      The terms of this protocol formed the basis for the Treaty of London signed by the British, French and Russian governments on 6 July 1827.
  3. (international law) An amendment to an official treaty. [from 19th c.]
    • 2002, Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law, p. 917 n. 253:
      The 1992 Protocol amended the definitions of other terms, including ‘ship’, ‘oil’ and ‘incident’: Art. 2.
  4. The first leaf of a roll of papyrus, or the official mark typically found on such a page. [from 19th c.]
    • 1991, Leila Avrin, Scribes, Script, and Books, p. 146:
      They marked the beginning of each scroll with their protocol, a practice that continued in the papyrus trade in the Byzantine Empire [...] into the Islamic period, when there were bilingual protocols in Greek and Arabic.
  5. The official formulas which appeared at the beginning or end of certain official documents such as charters, papal bulls etc. [from 19th c.]
    • 1985, Archivum Historiae Pontificiae, v. 23, p. 14:
      The protocol of the bull contains elements that appear to be formulaic by the time of John XVIII 's pontificate.
  6. (sciences) The original notes of observations made during an experiment; also, the precise method for carrying out or reproducing a given experiment. [from 19th c.]
    • 1931, Gye & Purdy, The Cause of Cancer, p. 194:
      The following is an abstract of the protocol of the experiment: Tumour extract.—A measured 16 c.c. of minced Rous Sarcoma tissue was ground with sand and extracted with 400 c.c. of 0.8-per-cent. saline.
  7. The official rules and guidelines for heads of state and other dignitaries, governing accepted behaviour in relations with other diplomatic representatives or over affairs of state. [from 19th c.]
    • 2009, Laura Johnson, "A mwah too far", The Guardian, 19 Sep 2009:
      Even the Queen (for whom the curtsey is a more standard address) was recently treated to an enthusiastic Obama embrace. Her Majesty, who is not normally known for partaking in such public displays of affection, seemed unperturbed by Michelle Obama's disregard for royal protocol.
  8. (by extension) An accepted code of conduct; acceptable behaviour in a given situation or group. [from 20th c.]
    • 2010, The Guardian, 16 Jul 2010:
      For those uncertain in the protocol of handshaking a formula for the perfect handshake has been devised by scientists at the University of Manchester.
    • 2020 December 2, Paul Bigland, “My weirdest and wackiest Rover yet”, in Rail, page 66:
      TfW has staff enforcing mask protocols at all the busy stations and most travellers oblige, albeit some with ill grace.
  9. (computing) A set of formal rules describing how to transmit or exchange data, especially across a network. [from 20th c.]
    • 2006, Zheng & Ni, Smart Phone and Next-Generation Mobile Computing, p. 444:
      An exception is Jabber, which is designed based on an open protocol called the extensible messaging and presence protocol (XMPP).
    • 2021 September 5, Eric Lipton; Ephrat Livni, “Crypto’s Rapid Move Into Banking Elicits Alarm in Washington”, in The New York Times[1], ISSN 0362-4331:
      Founders of those kinds of platforms argue that they are just building a “protocol” ultimately led by a community of users, with the computer code effectively running the show.
  10. (medicine) The set of instructions allowing a licensed medical professional to start, modify, or stop a medical or patient care order. [from 20th c.]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

protocol (third-person singular simple present protocols, present participle protocoling or protocolling, simple past and past participle protocoled or protocolled)

  1. (obsolete, transitive) To make a protocol of.
  2. (obsolete, intransitive) To make or write protocols, or first drafts; to issue protocols.

Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin protocollum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

protocol m (plural protocols)

  1. protocol

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch protocol. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˌproː.toːˈkɔl/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: pro‧to‧col
  • Rhymes: -ɔl

Noun[edit]

protocol n (plural protocols or protocollen, diminutive protocolletje n)

  1. protocol (collection of rules and procedures)
  2. protocol (book containing official documents)
  3. protocol (official record of minutes or agreements)

Descendants[edit]

  • Papiamentu: protokòl

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French protocole and German Protokoll.

Noun[edit]

protocol n (plural protocoale)

  1. protocol

Declension[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Latin protocollum (the first sheet of a volume (on which contents and errata were written)), from Byzantine Greek πρωτόκολλον (prōtókollon, first sheet glued onto a manuscript), from Ancient Greek πρῶτος (prôtos, first) + κόλλα (kólla, glue).

Noun[edit]

protocol m (plural protocols)

  1. minutes (of meeting)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English protocol.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

protocol m (plural protocolau)

  1. protocol

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
protocol brotocol mhrotocol phrotocol
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “protocol”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies