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See also: Rufen





From Middle High German ruofen, from Old High German ruofan, hruofan, from Proto-West Germanic *hrōpan, from Proto-Germanic *hrōpaną. Cognate with Dutch roepen, English roop, which see. Alongside there existed a weak Middle High German ruofen, from Old High German (h)ruofen. Weak conjugation is attestable until the 19th century. It indirectly lingers in the umlautless present forms, as against obsolete du rüfst, er rüft. (Lack of umlaut on rounded diphthong before labial is regular in Upper German, but it has only established itself here, not in laufen and saufen.)





rufen (class 7 strong, third-person singular present ruft, past tense rief, past participle gerufen, auxiliary haben)

  1. (intransitive) to call out; to shout; to cry; to shriek
    Synonym: schreien
    Antonym: flüstern
    um Hilfe rufento cry for help
  2. (intransitive, with “nach ...”) to call (for someone); to request the presence (of someone)
  3. (transitive) to call (something) out
    Synonyms: äußern, schreien, verkünden
    Antonyms: flüstern, schweigen
  4. (with dative object) to ask (someone) to do something; to call for (someone) to do something
    Synonym: bitten
    Antonym: befehlen
    jemandem zu antworten rufento ask someone to answer
  5. (transitive) to call (someone), e.g. by telephone



Derived terms


Further reading

  • rufen” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • rufen” in Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Lexikon
  • rufen” in Duden online
  • rufen” in