sviests

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Latvian[edit]

Sviests

Etymology[edit]

Originally the (adjectival) past passive participle of an old verb *sviest(to smear, to spread) (cf. Lithuanian svíesti); the original meaning of sviests was thus “(something) smeared (on something else), (something) used for smearing;” cf. Russian масло(máslo, butter, oil) and мазать(mázat’, to smear, spread (oil)), or Latin unguen(fat, grease) and unguō(to smear, to anoint). The verb *sviest would in turn come from *sviesti, from Proto-Baltic *swied-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *sweid-(to shine) (whence also Latvian svīst “to sweat; to steam; to dawn” q.v.); its original meaning would have been “to make something shine” > “to smear with oil, so that it shines” > “to smear” (cf. its descendant svaidīt “to anoint,” originally the iterative form of *sviest). Cognates include Lithuanian svíestas.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

sviests m (1st declension)

  1. butter (a dairy product, obtained from cream, with a high fat concentration)
    krējuma sviests‎ ― cream butter
    skābkrējuma sviests‎ ― sour cream butter
    sūkalu sviests‎ ― whey butter
    svaigs sviests‎ ― fresh butter
    nesalīts sviests‎ ― unsalted butter
    kausēts sviests‎ ― melted butter
    sviesta trauks‎ ― butter bowl
    sautēt saknes sviestā‎ ― to sautee roots in butter
    sviesta rūpniecība‎ ― butter industry
    kult sviestu‎ ― to churn butter
    gaiteņa pustumsā viņai skrēja pretī sviestā ceptu pankūku smarža‎ ― in the darkness of the corridor the smell of pancakes fried in butter came (lit. ran) to her
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) butter; containing butter, made with butter
    sviesta cepumi‎ ― butter cookies
    sviesta mīklu gatavo no sviesta, cukura, kviešu miltiem, nedaudz pievienojot olas‎ ― butter dough is made from butter, sugar, (and) wheat flour, adding a little egg (= one or two eggs)
  3. butter, spread (any food paste generally used as spread)
  4. (slang) nonsense; something that is bizarre
  5. (slang) something that has poor quality, is not successful
    saiet sviestā‎ ― to deteriorate; to fail (lit. to go into butter)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “sviests”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7