gaist

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of this word is unclear. If, as has been proposed, gaist is connected to Latvian dialectal atgaiša, atgaišis (wind blow; windy place), then its original meaning could have been “to blow, to breathe,” perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *gʷes- (to extinguish, to quench) (whence also Latvian dzēst “to extinguish, to quench”; q.v.): its length grade *gʷēs- would become *gʷeys-, with o grade *gʷoys-, from which Proto-Baltic *gais- “to blow” → “to disappear with the wind,” “to vanish.” Another suggestion links gaist to ģībt (to faint); yet another, to Latin haereō (to cling, to adhere). Cognates include Lithuanian gaĩšti (to linger, to hesitate; to perish, to die; to vanish, to disappear).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)
(file)

Verb[edit]

gaist

  1. 3rd person singular present indicative form of gaist
  2. 3rd person plural present indicative form of gaist
  3. (with the particle lai) 3rd person singular imperative form of gaist
  4. (with the particle lai) 3rd person plural imperative form of gaist

gaist intr., 1st conj., pres. gaistu, gaisti, gaist, past gaisu

  1. (in the 3rd person; of smoke, gases, etc.) to dissipate (to disappear into the surrounding environment)
    migla gaist — the fog is dissipating
    smaržas gaist — the odor is dissipating
    melni dūmu kamoli, veldamies no augstiem dūmeņiem, risinās un gaistot izsēj sīkas kvēpu pārsliņas Daugavas ūdeņos — black balls of smoke, forming from high chimneys, rose and (while) dissipating sowed tiny flakes of soot on the waters of the Daugava (river)
    (iz)gaist kā dūmi, kā migla — it dissipates like smoke, like fog (i.e., it doesn't last long)
    vecie parādi jāmaksā, nodokļus piedzen, bet vieglā peļņa izgaisusi kā dūmi — old debts must be paid, taxes are collected, and easy profits dissipate (= vanish) like smoke
  2. to disappear in the distance, to become gradually undistinguishable from one's surroundings as one moves away, or because of darkness, fog, etc.
    gaist skatienam — to disappear from sight
    dzērves gaist debesu tālē — the cranes (birds) disappear in the distant sky
    atvados un lēnām gaistu — I take leave and slowly disappear
    ārā snieg; krīt lielas un smagas pārslas... sniega ņirboņā gaist tumšās egles — it is snowing outside; big, heavy flakes are falling... the dark fir trees disappear in the abundant snow
  3. (chemistry, in the 3rd person; of volatile substances) to evaporate (to become vapor and disappear in the surrounding environment)
    ēteris viegli gaist — ether evaporates easily (= is volatile)
    gaistošas vielasvolatile substances
    ir divas fitoncīdu grupas: gaistošā frakcija, tas ir, vielas, kuras augs izdala atmosfērā...; un negaistošā frakcija: vielas, kas atrodas šūnsulā — there are two groups of phytoncides: the volatile group, which the plant releases into the atmosphere...; and the non-volatile group: substances present in the vegetable sap
  4. (in the 3rd person; of mental or physiological states) to wear off, to fade, to recede, to disappear, to end
    nemiers, dusmas gaist — the anxiety, the anger is disappearing
    nogurums gaist — the fatigue is disappearing
    mīlestība ir gaisusi — love has dissipated, disappeared
    bēdas gaist — the grief is disappearing
    atmiņas gaist — the memories are fading
    nodomi gaist — the intention is weakening
    ilūzijas gaist — the illusions are wearing off
    daiļums gaist — beauty fades, disappears
    sejā gaist smaids — the smile is fading on (his) face
    kā viļņi krastmalā pret klinšu pleciem sadrūp, tā mani sapņi gaist; bet pašam nav, kur bēgt — like waves crumbling against the rocks on the coast, so my dreams fade; and I don't have anywhere to flee
    tik labi un viegli bija viņas tuvumā, ka viss bijušais gaisa kā nebijis — so good and comfortable it was (to be) near her that everything that was (= existed) disappeared as if it had not been (= existed)
  5. (in the 3rd person; of light or darkness) to fade, to disappear (to stop shining)
    ēnas gaist — the shadows disappear
    krēsla gaist — the dawn is fading
    var nodzēst liesmu; un kvēle gaist — one can extinguish the flame; and then the glow fades, disapppears
  6. (in the 3rd perosn; of sounds) to fade, to fall gradually silent
    dziesma gaist tālumā — the song fades in the distance
    gaistoša melodijafading melody
  7. (in th 3rd person; of time, time periods) to go by, to disappear
    dienas ātri gaist — the days go quickly by
    pagātne gaist — the past goes by, fades, disappears
    vai tādi mirkļi aizmirstībā gaist? — do such (beautiful) moments fade into oblivion?
    ai gadi, kādēļ jūs gaistat, kādēļ tik ātri jums skriet? — oh, years, why do you go by, why do you have to run so fast?

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “gaist” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7