gulēt

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Latgalian[edit]

Verb[edit]

gulēt

  1. to sleep

Latvian[edit]

Gulēt (1)

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as the verb gult (to lie down) (q.v.), of which it was originally the iterative (and possibly causative) form. Originally it was an i-stem, as can be seen in dialectal forms like gulim, gulit instad of guļam, guļat. Cognates include Lithuanian gulė́ti, Sudovian guld (< *gult).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

gulēt intr., 3rd conj. irregular, pres. guļu, guli, guļ, past gulēju

  1. to sleep, to be asleep
    gulēt visu nakti — to sleep the whole night
    saldi gulēt — to sleep sweetly (= deeply)
    gulēt saldā miegā, saldu miegu — to sleep a sweet (= deep) sleep
    laiks gulēt — it is time to sleep
    bērnam gribas gulēt — the child wants to sleep
    (aiz)iet gulēt — to go to sleep
    ej (nu) gulēt! — go to sleep!
    guļ kā lācis — he sleeps like a bear (= very long)
    gulēt dienvidu — to take an afternoon nap (lit. to sleep midday)
  2. (of people, animals) to lie down (to be in horizontal position)
    gulēt uz sāniem — to lie down sideways, on one's side
    gulēt uz muguras — to lie on one's back
    gulēt ar vaļējām acīm — to lie down with one's eyes open
    gulēt saulē — to lie in the sun
    gulēt smiltīs, pludmalē — to lie on the sand, at the beach
  3. to lie in bed because of sickness; to be bedridden
    gulēt ar gripu — to be sick (lit. lie) with the flu
    gulēt ar plaušu karsoni — to be sick (lit. lie) with pneumonia
    gulēt nesamaņā — to lie unconscious
    gulēt slimnīcā — to be (lit. lie) in a hospital (= to be in treatmnet)
    gulēt uz (slimības) gultā — to be bedridden (lit. to lie in (an illness) bed)
    gulēt uz nāves gultā — to lie in one's death bed (terminal patient)
  4. (of dead people) to lie, to rest (to be buried in a grave)
    gulēt mūžīgā miegā — to lie in eternal sleep (= to be dead)
    gulēt zem (zaļām) velēnām — to lie under the (green) grass
    tēvs guļ smilšu kalniņā — father lies/rests in the sand hill
    kur viņi ir, manu seno dienu draugi?... cits guļ tālās Spānijas mežonīgo kalnu klintīs, cits Francijas pretošanās kustības nezināmo varoņu brāļu kapā — where are they, the friends of my old days?... one lies (= is buried) in the rocks of the wild Spanish mountains, another one in the grave of an unknown hero of the French Resistance
  5. (of plants) to lie (on the ground)
    parastās, gulošās tomātu šķirnes — a common, lying (on the ground) variety of tomato
  6. (of objects) to lie, to be in a lying position
    uz galda guļ maizes klaips — on the table (there) lies a loaf of bread
    šķūnī guļ pērnais siens — in the barn (there) lies last year's hay
    viņa jau jūt, ka smaga roka guļ uz viņas pleca — she felt that a heavy hand (was) lying on her shoulder
    laivā gulēja loms: divas līdakas un vienu prāvs asaris — in the boat (there) lay the catch: two pikes and one large perch
  7. (of objects) to lie (idle), to not be in use
    ceļu un transporta trūkuma dēļ neskartas guļ milzu bagātības — due to lack of roads and transportation, giant wealth lies untouched (under the ground)
    viņš iegriezās zvejnieku savienības veikalā un apskatījās, kādas preces guļ plauktos — he came into the fishermen union shop and checked which goods were lying on the shelves
  8. (of fluid substances, light, darkness) to spread over, to occupy (a place)
    pāri pilsētai gulēja nomākusies debess — over the city a cloudy sky lay (= hovered, spread)
    virs upes jau gulēja sniega ūdeņi — on the river the snow water was lying
    pār kalniem gulēja tumsa kā jūra pār koraļļu rifiem — the darkness lay over the hills like the sea over coral reefs
    ielejā jau gulēja ēnas — in the valley a shadow was lying
    rīta klusums gulēja pār zemi — the morning silence lay (= spread itself) over the land

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

There are two forms of the present active participle: guļošs and gulošs, both acceptable (the latter more frequent). Some authors suggest that guļošs should only be used in the sense of “sleeping,” while gulošs would have the more general sense of “lying (down).” In actual practice, however, this distinction is often not maintained.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “gulēt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7