īss

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See also: iss, ISS, íss, İSS, -iss, and -iss-

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *isas, *insas, from Proto-Indo-European *eis-, *is- (to move fast, forcefully, to drive) (from earlier “to hit, to move, to drive”). This root may have resulted from metathesis of *sei- (to extend one's arms; strain, strength), whence sist (to hit). Semantic development: “to hit, to move” > “to knock down, to reduce (with a blow)” > “made smaller, shorter” (participle). Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal įsas, Old Prussian insan (accusative), Sanskrit इषत (iṣát, a little, a few) (< *iṇst).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

īss (def. īsais, comp. īsāks, sup. visīsākais; adv. īsi)

  1. short (having relatively little length, less than average length)
    īsas piedurknesshort sleeves
    īsa pātagashort whip
    īsi svārkishort skirt
    īsie viļņi, īsviļņi ― shortwaves
    īss stāsts, dzejolis — short story, poem
  2. short, laconic
    īsos vārdosin short, in sum, briefly (lit. in short words)
  3. short, brief (lasting relatively little time, having relatively little duration; syn. neilgs)
    pēc īsiem saules mirkļiemafter brief moments of sun(shine)
    ziemas dienas ir īsaswinter days are short
    īsa izrādeshort show
    īss koncertsshort concert
    īsa sarunashort conversation
  4. short (which goes, ends quickly, insufficiently long)
    dzīve taču ir tik īsa kā decembra dienabut life is as short as a December day
    bišu mūžs ir īss, tikai daži mēnešibee life is short, only a few months
  5. (of feelings, states, relations) short-lived, insufficient
    mana laime bija īsa' my happiness was short
  6. (phonetics, phonology) short (pronounced with relatively little duration)
    īss patskanisshort vowel
    īsa zilbeshort syllable
  7. short, brief (lasting only a few moments)
    īss svilpiensshort whistle
    īsa skaņa, nopūtashort sound, sigh
  8. (of motion) short, quick (small, but fast)
    ar īsu žestu tas aicināja viņu apsēsties sev pretimwith a short, quick gesture that one invited him to sit down next to him

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “īss”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7