شمال

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Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Diachronically from Proto-Semitic *šimāl-, synchronically from ش م ل(š-m-l). Cognate with Hebrew שְׂמֹאל(səmōl, left), Akkadian 𒆏 (šumēlum, left side), Aramaic סְמָלָא(səmālā) / ܣܡܠܐ(semmālā, left side), Coptic ϣⲙⲟⲩⲗ (šmoul), Ugaritic 𐎌𐎎𐎀𐎍 (šmảl). The north sense derives from the left-hand side facing the sunrise, also attested in Sabaean 𐩠𐩦𐩱𐩣𐩡(hs²ʾml, to be northward).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شِمَال (šimālf (plural أَشْمُل(ʾašmul) or شَمَائِل(šamāʾil) or شُمُل(šumul))

  1. left hand
  2. left side
  3. bad omen
  4. handful of ears
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the root ش م ل(š-m-l) meaning “to bundle, “to wrap”, “to huddle”, “to be cold” – such senses are influenced by the cold-dry northerly wind necessitating wrapping up with clothes.

Noun[edit]

شِمَال (šimālm (plural شَمَائِل(šamāʾil))

  1. case, sheath, wrapping
Declension[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root ش م ل(š-m-l) meaning “to be leftward” – the north direction being the left-hand side facing the sunrise. Additionally it is relatable to the root meaning “to bundle” or “to wrap”, as the cold northern wind necessitated wrapping up with clothes, contrasting with جَنُوب(janūb, south) from the root ج ن ب(j-n-b) meaning “changing”, “laying aside” clothes, the warm southern wind allowing to put off clothes.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʃa.maːl/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

شَمَال (šamālm

  1. north
Declension[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]
شَمَال غَرْبِيّ(šamāl ḡarbiyy) شَمَال (šamāl) شَمَال شَرْقِيّ(šamāl šarqiyy)
غَرْب(ḡarb) Compass rose simple plain.svg شَرْق(šarq)
جَنُوب غَرْبِيّ(janūb ḡarbiyy) جَنُوب(janūb) جَنُوب شَرْقِيّ(janūb šarqiyy)

Noun[edit]

شَمَال (šamālf (plural شَمَالَات(šamālāt))

  1. north wind
Declension[edit]
References[edit]

Chagatai[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Arabic شَمَال(šamāl).

Noun[edit]

شمال (šemal)

  1. wind

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Root
ش م ل

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic شَمَال(šamāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شمال (šamālm

  1. north
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

(compass points)

شمال
غرب Compass rose simple plain.svg شرق
جنوب

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic شِمَال(šimāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شمال (šmālm

  1. left
Derived terms[edit]

Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Arabic شَمَال(šamāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Dari شمال
Iranian Persian
Tajik шимол (šimol)

شمال (šomâl)

  1. north
  2. Northern Iran

Derived terms[edit]


South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Root
ش م ل

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic شِمَال(šimāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʃmaːl/, [ʃmæːl]
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

شمال (šmālm

  1. left
    Antonym: يمين(yamīn)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic شَمَال(šamāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʃa.maːl/, [ʃaˈmæːl]
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

شمال (šamālm

  1. north
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

(compass points)

شمال (šamāl)
غرب(ḡarb) Compass rose simple plain.svg شرق(šarq)
جنوب(janūb)

Urdu[edit]

Urdu Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ur

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Persian شمال(šamāl), itself from Arabic شَمَال(šamāl).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شُمال or شِمال (śumāl or śimālm (Hindi spelling शुमाल or शिमाल‎)

  1. north

References[edit]

  • شمال”, in اُردُو لُغَت (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • شمال”, in Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2022.

See also[edit]

(compass points)

شمال مغربی شمال شمال مشرقی
مغرب Compass rose simple plain.svg مشرق
جنوب مغربی جنوب جنوب مشرقی