شمال

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Arabic

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Root
ش م ل (š-m-l)

Etymology 1

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From Proto-Semitic *šimāl-. Cognate with Hebrew שְׂמֹאל (s'mól, left), Akkadian 𒆏 (šumēlum, left side), Aramaic סְמָלָא (səmālā) / ܣܡܠܐ (semmālā, left side), Coptic ϣⲙⲟⲩⲗ (šmoul), Ugaritic 𐎌𐎎𐎀𐎍 (šmảl). The north sense derives from the left-hand side facing the sunrise, also attested in Sabaean 𐩠𐩦𐩱𐩣𐩡 (hs²ʾml, to be northward).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شِمَال (šimālf (plural أَشْمُل (ʔašmul) or شَمَائِل (šamāʔil) or شُمُل (šumul))

  1. left hand
  2. left side
  3. bad omen
  4. handful of ears
Declension
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Synonyms
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Antonyms
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References
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Etymology 2

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From the root ش م ل (š-m-l) meaning “to bundle, “to wrap”, “to huddle”, “to be cold” – such senses are influenced by the cold-dry northerly wind necessitating wrapping up with clothes.

Noun

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شِمَال (šimālm (plural شَمَائِل (šamāʔil))

  1. case, sheath, wrapping
Declension
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References
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Etymology 3

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From the root ش م ل (š-m-l) meaning “to be leftward” – the north direction being the left-hand side facing the sunrise; constrast with اَلْيَمَن (al-yaman), originally denoting one's right-hand side, before developing the sense of "the south". Additionally it is relatable to the root meaning “to bundle” or “to wrap”, as the cold northern wind necessitated wrapping up with clothes, contrasting with جَنُوب (janūb, south) from the root ج ن ب (j-n-b) meaning “changing”, “laying aside” clothes, the warm southern wind allowing to put off clothes.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ʃa.maːl/
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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شَمَال (šamālm

  1. north
Declension
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Coordinate terms
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شَمَال غَرْبِيّ (šamāl ḡarbiyy) شَمَال (šamāl) شَمَال شَرْقِيّ (šamāl šarqiyy)
غَرْب (ḡarb) شَرْق (šarq)
جَنُوب غَرْبِيّ (janūb ḡarbiyy) جَنُوب (janūb) جَنُوب شَرْقِيّ (janūb šarqiyy)

Noun

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شَمَال (šamālf (plural شَمَالَات (šamālāt))

  1. north wind
Declension
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References
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Chagatai

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Noun

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شمال (šemal)

  1. wind

Descendants

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  • Uyghur: شىمال (shimal)
  • Uzbek: shimol

Hijazi Arabic

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Root
ش م ل
1 term

Etymology 1

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From Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شمال (šamālm

  1. north
Coordinate terms
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شَمَال غَرْب (šamāl ḡarb) شَمَال (šamāl) شَمَال شَرْق (šamāl šarg)
غَرْب (ḡarb) شَرْق (šarg)
جَنُوب غَرْب (janūb ḡarb) جَنُوب (janūb) جَنُوب شَرْق (janūb šarg)
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From Arabic شِمَال (šimāl).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ʃu.maːl/, [ʃʊ.maːl]

Noun

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شمال (šumālm

  1. (rare) left
    Synonym: يَسار (yasār)

Moroccan Arabic

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Root
ش م ل
1 term

Etymology 1

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From Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شمال (šamālm

  1. north
Derived terms
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See also
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(compass points)

شمال
غرب شرق
جنوب

Etymology 2

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From Arabic شِمَال (šimāl).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شمال (šmālm

  1. left
Derived terms
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Persian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Pronunciation

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Readings
Classical reading? šamāl, šumāl, šimāl
Dari reading? šamāl
Iranian reading? šomâl
Tajik reading? šimol

Noun

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Dari شمال
Iranian Persian
Tajik шимол

شمال (šomâl)

  1. north
  2. Northern Iran

Derived terms

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South Levantine Arabic

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Root
ش م ل
1 term

Etymology 1

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From Arabic شِمَال (šimāl).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ʃmaːl/, [ʃmæːl]
  • Audio (Jerusalem):(file)

Noun

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شمال (šmālm

  1. left
    Antonym: يمين (yamīn)

Etymology 2

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From Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شمال (šamālm

  1. north
Derived terms
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See also
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(compass points)

شمال (šamāl)
غرب (ḡarb) شرق (šarq)
جنوب (janūb)

Urdu

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Urdu Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ur

Etymology

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Borrowed from Classical Persian شمال (šamāl), itself from Arabic شَمَال (šamāl).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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شُمال or شِمال (śumāl or śimālm (Hindi spelling शुमाल or शिमाल)

  1. north

See also

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(compass points)

شمال مغربی شمال شمال مشرقی
مغرب مشرق
جنوب مغربی جنوب جنوب مشرقی


References

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  • شمال”, in اُردُو لُغَت (urdū luġat) (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • شمال”, in ریخْتَہ لُغَت (rexta luġat) - Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2024.

Ushojo

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Noun

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شمال (šmāl)

  1. light spray