Appendix:Thai alphabet

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Consonants[edit]

No. Symbol Name Royal Thai IPA Class
Thai RTGS (meaning) Initial Final Initial Final
1 ก ไก่ ko kai (chicken) k k k k mid
2 ข ไข่ kho khai (egg) kh k k high
3 ฃ ขวด kho khuat (bottle) [obsolete] kh k k high
4 ค ควาย kho khwai (water buffalo) kh k k low
5 ฅ คน kho khon (person) [obsolete] kh k k low
6 ฆ ระฆัง kho ra-khang (bell) kh k k low
7 ง งู ngo ngu (snake) ng ng ŋ ŋ low
8 จ จาน cho chan (plate) ch t t mid
9 ฉ ฉิ่ง cho ching (cymbals) ch - tɕʰ - high
10 ช ช้าง cho chang (elephant) ch t tɕʰ t low
11 ซ โซ่ so so (chain) s t s t low
12 ฌ เฌอ cho choe (bush) ch - tɕʰ - low
13 ญ หญิง yo ying (woman) y n j n low
14 ฎ ชฎา do cha-da (headdress) d t d t mid
15 ฏ ปฏัก to pa-tak (goad, cattleprod spear) t t t t mid
16 ฐ ฐาน tho san-than (base) th t t high
17 ฑ มณโฑ tho nangmon-tho (Mandodari, character from Ramayana) th t t low
18 ฒ ผู้เฒ่า tho phu-thao (elder) th t t low
19 ณ เณร no nen (novice monk) n n n n low
20 ด เด็ก do dek (child) d t d t mid
21 ต เต่า to tao (turtle) t t t t mid
22 ถ ถุง tho thung (sack) th t t high
23 ท ทหาร tho thahan (soldier) th t t low
24 ธ ธง tho thong (flag) th t t low
25 น หนู no nu (mouse) n n n n low
26 บ ใบไม้ bo baimai (leaf) b p b p mid
27 ป ปลา po pla (fish) p p p p mid
28 ผ ผึ้ง pho phueng (bee) ph - - high
29 ฝ ฝา fo fa (lid) f - f - high
30 พ พาน pho phan (tray) ph p p low
31 ฟ ฟัน fo fan (teeth) f p f p low
32 ภ สำเภา pho sam-phao (sailboat) ph p p low
33 ม ม้า mo ma (horse) m m m m low
34 ย ยักษ์ yo yak (giant) y y j j low
35 ร เรือ ro ruea (boat) r n r n low
36 ล ลิง lo ling (monkey) l n l n low
37 ว แหวน wo waen (ring) w w w w low
38 ศ ศาลา so sala (pavilion) s t s t high
39 ษ ฤๅษี so rue-si (hermit) s t s t high
40 ส เสือ so suea (tiger) s t s t high
41 ห หีบ ho hip (chest) h - h - high
42 ฬ จุฬา lo chu-la (kite) l n l n low
43 อ อ่าง o ang (basin) * - ʔ - mid
44 ฮ นกฮูก ho nok-huk (owl) h - h - low

* อ is a special case in that at the beginning of a word it is used as a silent initial for syllables that start with a vowel (all vowels are written relative to a consonant — see below). The same symbol is used as a vowel in non-initial position.

Vowels[edit]

Symbol Name IPA Royal Variants Similar Sound
implied a a u u in "nut"
– – implied o o o   oa in "boat"
–รร ro han * ɑn an un un in tun; same as -ัน
–รร– ro han * ɑ a u u in "nut"; same as -ั-
–รรม ro han with mo ma as closing consonant * ɑm am um um in "hum"; same as -ำ
–ว– sara ua * ua ua uar ewe in "newer"
–วย sara ua with yo yak as closing consonant uɛj uai uay uoy in "buoy"
–อ sara o ɔː o or, aw aw in "saw"
–อย sara o with yo yak as closing consonant ɔːj oi oy oy in "boy"
–ะ sara a a u u in "nut"
–ั – sara a in mai han-akat form a a u u in "nut"
–ัย sara a with yo yak as closing consonant ɑj ai   i in "hi"
–ัว sara ua ua ua   ewe in "newer"
–ัวะ sara ua uaʔ ua   ewe in "sewer"
–า sara a a ah, ar, aa a in "father"
–าย sara a with yo yak as closing consonant aːj ai aai, aay, ay ye in "bye"
–าว sara a with wo waen as closing consonant aːw ao au ow in "now"
–ำ sara am ɑm am um um in "sum"
–ิ sara i i i   y in "greedy"
–ิว sara i with wo waen as closing consonant iw io ew ew in "new"
–ี sara i i ee, ii, y ee in "see"
–ึ sara ue ɯ ue eu, u, uh u in French "du" (short)
–ื sara ue ɯː ue eu, u u in French "dur" (long)
–ุ sara u u u oo oo in "look"
–ู sara u u oo, uu oo in "too"
เ– sara e e ay, a, ae, ai, ei a in "lame"
เ–็ – sara e with mai taikhu e e   e in "neck"
เ–ะ sara e e eh e in "neck"
เ–ย sara oe with yo yak as closing consonant ɤːj oei oey u in "burn" + y in "boy"
เ–อ sara oe ɤː oe er, eu, ur u in "burn"
เ–อะ sara oe ɤʔ oe eu e in "the"
เ–ิ – sara oe ɤ oe eu, u e in "the"
เ–ว sara e with wo waen as closing consonant eːw eo eu, ew ai + ow in "rainbow"
เ–า sara ao aw ao aw, au, ow ow in "cow"
เ–าะ sara o ɔʔ o orh, oh, or o in "not"
เ–ีย sara ia iːa ia ear, ere, ie ea in "ear"
เ–ียะ sara ia iaʔ ia iah, ear, ie ea in "ear" with glottal stop
เ–ียว sara ia with wo waen as closing consonant io iao eaw, iew, iow io in "trio"
เ–ือ sara uea ɯːa uea eua, ua, ue ure in "pure"
เ–ือะ sara uea ɯaʔ uea eua, ua ure in "pure"
แ– sara ae ɛː ae a a in "ham"
แ–ะ sara ae ɛʔ ae aeh, a a in "at"
แ–็ – sara ae with mai taikhu ɛ ae aeh, a a in "at"
แ–ว sara ae with wo weaen as closing consonant ɛːw aeo aew, eo a in "ham" + ow in "low"
โ– sara o o or, oh, ô o in "go"
โ–ะ sara o o oh o in "poke"
ใ– sara ai mai muan ** ɑj ai ay, y i in "I"
ไ– sara ai mai malai ɑj ai ay, y i in "I"
ro rue (short) * rue ru, ri ri in "Krishna"
ฤๅ ro rue (long) * rɯː rue ruu
lo lue (short) * lue lu, li li in "Lima"
ฦๅ lo lue (long) * lɯː lue lu

* These are semi-vowels or diphthongs written with consonant symbols.

** Only 20 Thai words use sara ai mai muan (ใ). Other words use one of the /ɑj/ variants.