audeo

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *awidēō (to be greedy, want very much), from *awidos (Latin avidus). See the same treatment in ārdeō < āridus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

audeō (present infinitive audēre, perfect active ausī or ausus sum, supine ausum); second conjugation, optionally semi-deponent

  1. I dare, venture, risk
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations Oratio in Catilinam Prima in Senatu Habita.1:
      Quam diū quisquam erit quī tē dēfendēre audeat, vīvēs, et vīvēs ita ut nunc vīvis, multīs meīs et firmīs praesidiīs obsessus nē commōvēre tē contrā rem pūblicam possīs. Multōrum tē etiam oculī et aurēs nōn sentientem, sīcut adhūc fēcērunt, speculābuntur atque custōdient.
      As long as one person exists who can dare to defend you, you shall live; but you shall live as you do now, surrounded by my many and trusty guards, so that you shall not be able to stir one finger against the republic: many eyes and ears shall still observe and watch you, as they have hitherto done, though you shall not perceive them.
    • 20 BCE – 14 BCE, Horace, Epistles 1.40:
      Sapere audē.
      Dare to be wise.
  2. (poetic) I am eager for battle

Conjugation[edit]

  • The form sodes is a contraction of "si audes"
   Conjugation of audeō (second conjugation, optionally semi-deponent)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present audeō audēs audet audēmus audētis audent
imperfect audēbam audēbās audēbat audēbāmus audēbātis audēbant
future audēbō audēbis audēbit audēbimus audēbitis audēbunt
perfect ausī,
ausus sum
ausistī,
ausus es
ausit,
ausus est
ausimus,
ausī sumus
ausistis,
ausī estis
ausērunt,
ausēre,
ausī sunt
pluperfect auseram,
ausus eram
auserās,
ausus erās
auserat,
ausus erat
auserāmus,
ausī erāmus
auserātis,
ausī erātis
auserant,
ausī erant
future perfect auserō,
ausus erō
auseris,
ausus eris
auserit,
ausus erit
auserimus,
ausī erimus
auseritis,
ausī eritis
auserint,
ausī erint
sigmatic future1 ausō ausis ausit ausimus ausitis ausint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present audeam audeās audeat audeāmus audeātis audeant
imperfect audērem audērēs audēret audērēmus audērētis audērent
perfect auserim,
ausus sim
auserīs,
ausus sīs
auserit,
ausus sit
auserīmus,
ausī sīmus
auserītis,
ausī sītis
auserint,
ausī sint
pluperfect ausissem,
ausus essem
ausissēs,
ausus essēs
ausisset,
ausus esset
ausissēmus,
ausī essēmus
ausissētis,
ausī essētis
ausissent,
ausī essent
sigmatic aorist1 ausim ausīs ausīt ausīmus ausītis ausint
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present audē audēte
future audētō audētō audētōte audentō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives audēre ausum esse ausūrum esse
participles audēns ausus ausūrus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
audendī audendō audendum audendō ausum ausū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • audeo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • audeo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • audeo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN