dabūt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A borrowing from Russian добыть (dobýt’, to get, to obtain), itself derived from быть (bytʹ, to be). Given its archaic form dabuit (attested in 17th-century dictionaries), this borrowing must have happened before the 13th century, when ы had the sound ui. A different (minority) opinion is that dabūt was not borrowed, but is related to dobt (to hollow out) and to dialectal dābt (to hit, to cut).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

dabūt tr., 2nd conj., pres. dabūju, dabū, dabū, past dabūju

  1. to get, to obtain (to become the holder, possessor of something)
    dabūt biļetes uz koncertu — to get, obtain tickets to the concert
    dabūt aizdoto naudu atpakaļ — to get the loaned money back
    dabūt labu palīgu, darbu — to get good help, a job
    dabūt vīru, sievu — to get a husband, a wife
    turi, meita, godu savu, tu vairs citu nedabūsi — keep, daughter, your honor, you will not get anything else
  2. to get, to find
    kur jūs dabūjāt šos ziedus? — where did you get these flowers?
    šo grāmatu vairs nekur nevar dabūt — this book cannot be found anywhere anymore
  3. to get, to buy
    loterijas biļetes var dabūt visās iestādēs, uzņēmumos — one can get lotery tickets in all institutions (and) enterprises
  4. to get a result, to succeed in getting
    dabūt telefona savienojumu — to get a telephone connection
    ātri dabūt tālsarunu — to get a long-distance call
    dabūt no vietnieka parakstu — to get a signature from the deputy
  5. to get, to receive
    dabūt vēstules — to get, receive letters
    dabūt labu atzīmi — to get a good grade
    dabūt dāvanu — to receive a present
    cik dabūji par sviestu? — how much (money) did you get for the butter?
    savu nosaukumu Galariji ir dabūjuši no tā, ka atradās pašā ciema galā — the Galaraji got their name from the fact that they are located at the very end of the village
  6. to get, to become sick with (a disease)
    dabūt iesnas — to get a cold
    pasaule runāja, ka viņš savā laikā pārdzēries un no tā dabūjis iekšās audzēju — the world (= people) say that he drank too much in his time and from (= because of) this he got a visceral tumor
  7. to get, to accomplish (some physical work, usually with effort)
    dabūt kurpi kājā — to get the shoes on (one's) feet
    dabūt logu vaļā — to get the window open
    dabūt vārtus ciet — to get the gates shut, closed
    dabūt skapi pa durvīm iekšā — to get the cupboard in through the door
    dabūt kastei vāku nost — to get the lid off the box
    dabūt bērnu gultā — to get the child in bed
    dabūt prom ziņkārīgos — to get the curious (to move) away
    dabūt rokas tīras — to get (one's) hands clean
    dabūt cietušo pie samaņas — to get the victim conscious (= to make him/her regain consciousness)
  8. to get the chance, the opportunity (to do something)
    dabūt nosnausties — to get (the chance) to take a nap
    dabūt dzirdēt jauno ziņu — to get to hear the new message
    dabūt zināt — to get to know
    viņš nedabūja nobeigt, jo mūsu meitenes sacēla tādu brēku, ka Ādolfam neatlika nekas cits kā iesākto domu pavedienu pārtraukt — he didn't get to finish, because our girls raised such noise that Ādolfs had no choice but to stop (his) ongoing thread of thought
  9. to get (to be subjected to some physical or emotional effect)
    dabūt triecienu — to get a shock
    dabūt pļauku — to get a slap
    dabūt pērienu — to get a beating
    dabūt rājienu — to get a reprimand
    dabūt sodu — to get a punishment
    dabūt pa pirkstiem — to get (= be hit) on the fingers
    es dabūju tādu belzienu pa kaklu, ka acīs man satumsa — I got such a blow on the neck that my eyes (= vision) went black
    Māri, beidz pļāpāt muļķības! pateikšu vecmāmiņai, tad tu dabūsi! — Māris, stop blabbering nonsense! I'll tell grandmother, then you will get it (= punishment)
  10. to get (to be damaged, harmed by something)
    pulkstenis dabūjis triecienu — the clock got a shock, a blow
  11. (colloquial) to get to, to have to (to feel forced, pressured to do something)
    dabūju iet atpakaļ uz mājām — I got to, had to go back home
    dabūju nogaidīt līdz vēlam vakaram — I got to, had to wait until late at night
    par to man dabūsi samaksāt! — for this you will get, have to pay me!
    zēns dabūjis uzdevumu pārrakstīt — the boy got to, had to rewrite his task (= homework)

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:

References[edit]

  1. ^ “dabūt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7