dabūt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A borrowing from Russian добы́ть (dobýtʹ, to get, to obtain), itself derived from быть (bytʹ, to be). Given its archaic form dabuit (attested in 17th-century dictionaries), this borrowing must have happened before the 13th century, when ы had the sound ui. A different (minority) opinion is that dabūt was not borrowed, but is related to dobt (to hollow out) and to dialectal dābt (to hit, to cut).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Verb[edit]

dabūt tr., 2nd conj., pres. dabūju, dabū, dabū, past dabūju

  1. to get, to obtain (to become the holder, possessor of something)
    dabūt biļetes uz koncertuto get, obtain tickets to the concert
    dabūt aizdoto naudu atpakaļto get the loaned money back
    dabūt labu palīgu, darbuto get good help, a job
    dabūt vīru, sievuto get a husband, a wife
    turi, meita, godu savu, tu vairs citu nedabūsikeep, daughter, your honor, you will not get anything else
  2. to get, to find
    kur jūs dabūjāt šos ziedus?where did you get these flowers?
    šo grāmatu vairs nekur nevar dabūtthis book cannot be found anywhere anymore
  3. to get, to buy
    loterijas biļetes var dabūt visās iestādēs, uzņēmumosone can get lotery tickets in all institutions (and) enterprises
  4. to get a result, to succeed in getting
    dabūt telefona savienojumuto get a telephone connection
    ātri dabūt tālsarunuto get a long-distance call
    dabūt no vietnieka parakstuto get a signature from the deputy
  5. to get, to receive
    dabūt vēstulesto get, receive letters
    dabūt labu atzīmito get a good grade
    dabūt dāvanuto receive a present
    cik dabūji par sviestu?how much (money) did you get for the butter?
    savu nosaukumu Galariji ir dabūjuši no tā, ka atradās pašā ciema galāthe Galaraji got their name from the fact that they are located at the very end of the village
  6. to get, to become sick with (a disease)
    dabūt iesnasto get a cold
    pasaule runāja, ka viņš savā laikā pārdzēries un no tā dabūjis iekšās audzējuthe world (= people) say that he drank too much in his time and from (= because of) this he got a visceral tumor
  7. to get, to accomplish (some physical work, usually with effort)
    dabūt kurpi kājāto get the shoes on (one's) feet
    dabūt logu vaļāto get the window open
    dabūt vārtus cietto get the gates shut, closed
    dabūt skapi pa durvīm iekšāto get the cupboard in through the door
    dabūt kastei vāku nostto get the lid off the box
    dabūt bērnu gultāto get the child in bed
    dabūt prom ziņkārīgosto get the curious (to move) away
    dabūt rokas tīrasto get (one's) hands clean
    dabūt cietušo pie samaņasto get the victim conscious (= to make him/her regain consciousness)
  8. to get the chance, the opportunity (to do something)
    dabūt nosnaustiesto get (the chance) to take a nap
    dabūt dzirdēt jauno ziņuto get to hear the new message
    dabūt zinātto get to know
    viņš nedabūja nobeigt, jo mūsu meitenes sacēla tādu brēku, ka Ādolfam neatlika nekas cits kā iesākto domu pavedienu pārtraukthe didn't get to finish, because our girls raised such noise that Ādolfs had no choice but to stop (his) ongoing thread of thought
  9. to get (to be subjected to some physical or emotional effect)
    dabūt triecienuto get a shock
    dabūt pļaukuto get a slap
    dabūt pērienuto get a beating
    dabūt rājienuto get a reprimand
    dabūt soduto get a punishment
    dabūt pa pirkstiemto get (= be hit) on the fingers
    es dabūju tādu belzienu pa kaklu, ka acīs man satumsaI got such a blow on the neck that my eyes (= vision) went black
    Māri, beidz pļāpāt muļķības! pateikšu vecmāmiņai, tad tu dabūsi!Māris, stop blabbering nonsense! I'll tell grandmother, then you will get it (= punishment)
  10. to get (to be damaged, harmed by something)
    pulkstenis dabūjis triecienuthe clock got a shock, a blow
  11. (colloquial) to get to, to have to (to feel forced, pressured to do something)
    dabūju iet atpakaļ uz mājāmI got to, had to go back home
    dabūju nogaidīt līdz vēlam vakaramI got to, had to wait until late at night
    par to man dabūsi samaksāt!for this you will get, have to pay me!
    zēns dabūjis uzdevumu pārrakstītthe boy got to, had to rewrite his task (= homework)

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dabūt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7