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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *nē, from Proto-Indo-European *nē, a parallel form to *ne “no, not,” the sentence negation particle. Cognates include Lithuanian , nė̃ ‎(neither, nor), Old Church Slavonic не ‎(ne), Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian не ‎(ne), Czech ne, Polish nie, Gothic 𐌽𐌹 ‎(ni), 𐌽𐌴 ‎(), Hittite natta ‎(not), nāwi ‎(not yet), Sanskrit ‎(), Latin ne-, .[1]

Particle[edit]

  1. used to deny or disagree with what was said in the preceding affirmative statement; no
    “Vai tu biji teātrī?” “” — “Were you at the theater?” “No
    “Vai viņš ir slims?” “” — “Is he sick?” “No
  2. used to confirm or agree with what was said in the preceding negative statement; no
    “Avīzi neatvedi?” “”, es iesaucos; “avīzes mums nav.” — “Didn't you bring the newspaper?” “No,” I exclaimed; “we don't have newspapers.”
    “Tu esi klāt!” viņa sacīja. “Jā, esmu klāt.” “Nenomaldījies?” “, nenomaldījos.” — “You are here!” she said. “Yes, I am here.” “You didn't get lost?” “No, I didn't get lost.”
  3. used to negate a previous assumption; no
    Atskan telefona zvans: tai vajag būt viņai! , nav. — The telephone bell rang: it must be her! No, it isn't.
    Ja viss sils izdegtu!... , , to Andrikssons nebija gribējis — If the whole forest burned!... No, no, Andrikssons had not wanted that
  4. used to correct, precise or reinforce what was said in the preceding utterance; no, rather, actually
    Jūra bija zila. Nē, dzīzāk zaļa — The sea was blue. No, rather (it was) green.
    Atnākšu rīt. , parīt. — I'll come tomorrow. No, actually, the day after tomorrow
    Kāds nāca. , tur sarunādamies nāca vairāki vīri. — Someone was coming. No, actually, several men came talking.
    Ieva reizēm palūkojās: zēns soļoja, rokas šūpodams, šaurajā sejā apņēmīga izteiksme. , Aivars atradīs sev vietu dzīvē — Ieva looked a few times: the boy walked, arms swinging, a resolute expression in (his) narrow face. No, Aivars will find a place for himself in life
  5. used to reinforce a negative statement; no
    , neiesim!No, we're not going!
    , nevar.No, (you) can't (do this).
    , tas patiesi nav saprotams.No, this is really not clear
    , citādi tu nevarēji rīkoties.No, you could not have acted differently
  6. used instead of a negative verb form; no, ...not
    vienam ieteicams sauļoties, otrs turpretī nedrīkst; viens var peldēties, cits — to one it is recommended to sit in the sun, the other, however, is not allowed; one may swim, the other no (= may not)
  7. used as a noun, to indicate a negative answer to a question, or to a proposal
    Kristaps gribēja apprecēties... bet te nu Līvija pateica: — Kristaps wanted to get marreid... but here Līvija said: no.
    viņai iztapa, viņu lutināja, nekad viņai nebija gadījies dzirdēt “”, kad viņa kaut ko vēlējās — they pleased her, they indulged her, she never had happened to hear “no” when she wanted something

Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7