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From Proto-Italic *pendēō, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)pn̥d-éh₁ye-ti, from *(s)pend- (stretch, pull, draw). Related to pendō, pondus.



pendeō (present infinitive pendēre, perfect active pependī); second conjugation, no passive, no supine stem

  1. (intransitive) I hang (down), I am suspended; hover, overhang, float.
    Synonym: haereō
  2. (intransitive) I hang about, loiter, tarry, linger.
  3. (intransitive) I am put in public, exposed for sale
    Synonym: liceō
  4. (intransitive) I hang down; I am weak or without strength; sag, droop.
  5. (intransitive) I weigh.
  6. (intransitive) I have weight or value.
  7. (intransitive) I rest or depend upon.
    • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Fasti 3.680:
      pendet ab officiō spēs mihi magna tuō.
      A great hope of mine hangs on what you can do for me. (trans. Anne and Peter Wiseman, 2011)
  8. (intransitive) I hang upon a person's words; listen attentively to.
  9. (intransitive) I am suspended, interrupted or discontinued.
  10. (intransitive) I am ready to fall, hang suspended.
  11. (intransitive) I am uncertain, perplexed or in suspense, waver.
    Synonyms: errō, dubitō, fluitō, vagor
    Antonym: cōnstō


   Conjugation of pendeō (second conjugation, no supine stem, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendeō pendēs pendet pendēmus pendētis pendent
imperfect pendēbam pendēbās pendēbat pendēbāmus pendēbātis pendēbant
future pendēbō pendēbis pendēbit pendēbimus pendēbitis pendēbunt
perfect pependī pependistī pependit pependimus pependistis pependērunt,
pluperfect pependeram pependerās pependerat pependerāmus pependerātis pependerant
future perfect pependerō pependeris pependerit pependerimus pependeritis pependerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendeam pendeās pendeat pendeāmus pendeātis pendeant
imperfect pendērem pendērēs pendēret pendērēmus pendērētis pendērent
perfect pependerim pependerīs pependerit pependerīmus pependerītis pependerint
pluperfect pependissem pependissēs pependisset pependissēmus pependissētis pependissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendē pendēte
future pendētō pendētō pendētōte pendentō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives pendēre pependisse
participles pendēns
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
pendendī pendendō pendendum pendendō

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • pendeo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • pendeo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • pendeo in Enrico Olivetti, editor (2003-2023) Dizionario Latino, Olivetti Media Communication
  • pendeo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) important results are often produced by trivial causes: ex parvis saepe magnarum rerum momenta pendent
    • (ambiguous) to pay taxes: vectigalia, tributa pendere
    • (ambiguous) to be punished by some one (on account of a thing): poenas alicui pendere (alicuius rei)
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 988