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From Proto-Italic *pendēō, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)pn̥d-éh₁ye-ti, from *(s)pend- (stretch, pull, draw). Cognate with Latin pendō, pondus.


  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈː/, [ˈpɛː]
  • (file)


pendeō (present infinitive pendēre, perfect active pependī); second conjugation, no passive

  1. I hang (down), I am suspended; hover, overhang, float.
  2. I hang about, loiter, tarry, linger.
  3. I hang down; I am weak or without strength; sag, droop.
  4. I weigh.
  5. I have weight or value.
  6. I rest or depend upon.
  7. I hang upon a person's words; listen attentively to.
  8. I am suspended, interrupted or discontinued.
  9. I am ready to fall, hang suspended.
  10. I am uncertain, perplexed or in suspense.


   Conjugation of pendeo (second conjugation, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendeō pendēs pendet pendēmus pendētis pendent
imperfect pendēbam pendēbās pendēbat pendēbāmus pendēbātis pendēbant
future pendēbō pendēbis pendēbit pendēbimus pendēbitis pendēbunt
perfect pependī pependistī pependit pependimus pependistis pependērunt, pependēre
pluperfect pependeram pependerās pependerat pependerāmus pependerātis pependerant
future perfect pependerō pependeris pependerit pependerimus pependeritis pependerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendeam pendeās pendeat pendeāmus pendeātis pendeant
imperfect pendērem pendērēs pendēret pendērēmus pendērētis pendērent
perfect pependerim pependerīs pependerit pependerīmus pependerītis pependerint
pluperfect pependissem pependissēs pependisset pependissēmus pependissētis pependissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pendē pendēte
future pendētō pendētō pendētōte pendentō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives pendēre pependisse
participles pendēns
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
pendēre pendendī pendendō pendendum

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • pendeo in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • pendeo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • pendeo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) important results are often produced by trivial causes: ex parvis saepe magnarum rerum momenta pendent
    • (ambiguous) to pay taxes: vectigalia, tributa pendere
    • (ambiguous) to be punished by some one (on account of a thing): poenas alicui pendere (alicuius rei)
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 988