penumbra

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See also: Penumbra

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From New Latin pēnumbra, from Latin paene (almost) + umbra (shadow).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pəˈnʌm.bɹə/, enPR: pĭ-nŭm'brə
  • Hyphenation: pen‧um‧bra or pe‧num‧bra
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

penumbra (plural penumbras or penumbrae or (obsolete) penumbræ)

  1. A partially shaded area around the edges of a shadow, especially an eclipse.
    • 2011, Galen C. Duree, Jr., Optics for Dummies, Wiley Publishing, Inc., published 2011, →ISBN, page 61:
      The other places see the penumbra of the moon's shadow fall on the earth, so the eclipse is partial, and part of the sun's disc is still visible.
    • 2011, Frank McLynn, Captain Cook: Master of the Seas, Yale University Press, published 2011, →ISBN, page 112:
      In the boiling temperature of 119 ° F – the hottest they had experienced so far – they watched as the penumbra of Venus blurred its outline at the precise moment the disc crossed the sun.
    • 2012, Michael A. Seeds, Dana E. Backman, Horizons: Exploring the Universe, Brooks/Cole, published 2012, →ISBN, page 37:
      The part of the moon that remains in the penumbra receives some direct sunlight, and the glare is usually great enough to prevent your seeing the faint coppery glow of the part of the moon in the umbra.
  2. (astronomy) A region around the edge of a sunspot, darker than the sun's surface but lighter than the middle of the sunspot.
  3. (figuratively) An area of uncertainty or intermediacy between two mutually exclusive states or categories.
    • 1998, Debraj Ray, Development Economics, Princeton University Press, →ISBN, pages 346–347:
      These firms or businesses are not illegal in the strict sense, but there is a shadowy penumbra within which they live, and it is often convenient for the government to look the other way.
    • 2010, Denis Farkasfalvy, Inspiration and Interpretation: A Theological Introduction to Sacred Scripture, The Catholic University of America Press, published 2010, →ISBN, page 188:
      [] God chose to descend into the realm of human imperfection, where the light of truth is spare and must exist in the penumbra of partial knowledge mixed with partial ignorance.
    • 2011, Bill Schwartz, The White Man's World, Oxford University Press, published 2011, →ISBN, page 136:
      Unlike some of his contemporaries Parkes never implied that the Irish were close, in the racial hierarchy, to black, condemned to some racial penumbra, between black and white; but nor, given Catholic exclusion from the given traditions of his native radicalism, were the Irish white in the same way that he was.
  4. (figuratively) An area that lies on the edge of something; a fringe.
    • 1975, Bryan R. Wilson, The Noble Savages: The Primitive Origins of Charisma and Its Contemporary Survival, Quantum Books, published 1975, →ISBN, page 116:
      Whilst the orthodox, de-charismatized churches steadily lose influence and support and the new cults develop, in the religious penumbra there have persisted, during the last century, echoes of charisma.
    • 1986, John McCormick, “Chicago Bounces Back”, in Newsweek, volume 108, page 42:
      But for all the expansionist energy of a metro area that sprawls from Wisconsin to Indiana (total population: 7.2 million), downtown Chicago and its penumbra also stand rejuvenated.
    • 2000, Steve Jones, The Language of Genes[1], Flamingo, →ISBN, page xv:
      Some are accounts of the latest advances, but too many are in that weary penumbra of science inhabited by sociologists, who wander like children in a toyshop, playing with devices they scarcely understand.
  5. Something related to, connected to, and implied by, the existence of something else that is necessary for the second thing to be full and complete in its essential aspects.
  6. (medicine, preceded by "ischaemic", after a stroke) A region of the brain that has lost only some of its blood supply, and retains structural integrity but has lost function.

Quotations[edit]

  • 1842, [George B. Loring], England Opposed to Slavery, or Some Remarks upon “An Examination into the Real Causes of the War Against the United States, and an Appeal to the Other Powers of Europe Against the Purposes of England.”, Boston: Benjamin H. Greene, pages 48–49:
    Thank God we are not all cowards, we have not all a low ambition, which would make men shades, pœnumbræ of their fellows.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024), “penumbra”, in Online Etymology Dictionary: “ [] from Modern Latin penumbra "partial shadow outside the complete shadow of an eclipse," coined 1604 by Kepler from Latin pæne "nearly, almost, practically," which is of uncertain origin, + umbra "shadow" (see umbrage).”
  2. ^ penumbra” in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th revised edition, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016, →ISBN; reproduced on TheFreeDictionary.com, Huntingdon Valley, Pa.: Farlex, Inc., 2003–2024: “New Latin pēnumbra : Latin paene, almost + Latin umbra, shadow.”

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Internationalism (see English penumbra).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpenumbrɑ/, [ˈpe̞numbrɑ̝]
  • Rhymes: -enumbrɑ
  • Syllabification(key): pe‧numb‧ra

Noun[edit]

penumbra

  1. penumbra

Declension[edit]

Inflection of penumbra (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative penumbra penumbrat
genitive penumbran penumbrien
partitive penumbraa penumbria
illative penumbraan penumbriin
singular plural
nominative penumbra penumbrat
accusative nom. penumbra penumbrat
gen. penumbran
genitive penumbran penumbrien
penumbrainrare
partitive penumbraa penumbria
inessive penumbrassa penumbrissa
elative penumbrasta penumbrista
illative penumbraan penumbriin
adessive penumbralla penumbrilla
ablative penumbralta penumbrilta
allative penumbralle penumbrille
essive penumbrana penumbrina
translative penumbraksi penumbriksi
abessive penumbratta penumbritta
instructive penumbrin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of penumbra (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative penumbrani penumbrani
accusative nom. penumbrani penumbrani
gen. penumbrani
genitive penumbrani penumbrieni
penumbrainirare
partitive penumbraani penumbriani
inessive penumbrassani penumbrissani
elative penumbrastani penumbristani
illative penumbraani penumbriini
adessive penumbrallani penumbrillani
ablative penumbraltani penumbriltani
allative penumbralleni penumbrilleni
essive penumbranani penumbrinani
translative penumbrakseni penumbrikseni
abessive penumbrattani penumbrittani
instructive
comitative penumbrineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative penumbrasi penumbrasi
accusative nom. penumbrasi penumbrasi
gen. penumbrasi
genitive penumbrasi penumbriesi
penumbraisirare
partitive penumbraasi penumbriasi
inessive penumbrassasi penumbrissasi
elative penumbrastasi penumbristasi
illative penumbraasi penumbriisi
adessive penumbrallasi penumbrillasi
ablative penumbraltasi penumbriltasi
allative penumbrallesi penumbrillesi
essive penumbranasi penumbrinasi
translative penumbraksesi penumbriksesi
abessive penumbrattasi penumbrittasi
instructive
comitative penumbrinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative penumbramme penumbramme
accusative nom. penumbramme penumbramme
gen. penumbramme
genitive penumbramme penumbriemme
penumbraimmerare
partitive penumbraamme penumbriamme
inessive penumbrassamme penumbrissamme
elative penumbrastamme penumbristamme
illative penumbraamme penumbriimme
adessive penumbrallamme penumbrillamme
ablative penumbraltamme penumbriltamme
allative penumbrallemme penumbrillemme
essive penumbranamme penumbrinamme
translative penumbraksemme penumbriksemme
abessive penumbrattamme penumbrittamme
instructive
comitative penumbrinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative penumbranne penumbranne
accusative nom. penumbranne penumbranne
gen. penumbranne
genitive penumbranne penumbrienne
penumbrainnerare
partitive penumbraanne penumbrianne
inessive penumbrassanne penumbrissanne
elative penumbrastanne penumbristanne
illative penumbraanne penumbriinne
adessive penumbrallanne penumbrillanne
ablative penumbraltanne penumbriltanne
allative penumbrallenne penumbrillenne
essive penumbrananne penumbrinanne
translative penumbraksenne penumbriksenne
abessive penumbrattanne penumbrittanne
instructive
comitative penumbrinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative penumbransa penumbransa
accusative nom. penumbransa penumbransa
gen. penumbransa
genitive penumbransa penumbriensa
penumbrainsarare
partitive penumbraansa penumbriaan
penumbriansa
inessive penumbrassaan
penumbrassansa
penumbrissaan
penumbrissansa
elative penumbrastaan
penumbrastansa
penumbristaan
penumbristansa
illative penumbraansa penumbriinsa
adessive penumbrallaan
penumbrallansa
penumbrillaan
penumbrillansa
ablative penumbraltaan
penumbraltansa
penumbriltaan
penumbriltansa
allative penumbralleen
penumbrallensa
penumbrilleen
penumbrillensa
essive penumbranaan
penumbranansa
penumbrinaan
penumbrinansa
translative penumbrakseen
penumbraksensa
penumbrikseen
penumbriksensa
abessive penumbrattaan
penumbrattansa
penumbrittaan
penumbrittansa
instructive
comitative penumbrineen
penumbrinensa

Synonyms[edit]

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pēnumbra f (genitive pēnumbrae); first declension

  1. (New Latin) Alternative form of paenumbra.

Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēnumbra pēnumbrae
Genitive pēnumbrae pēnumbrārum
Dative pēnumbrae pēnumbrīs
Accusative pēnumbram pēnumbrās
Ablative pēnumbrā pēnumbrīs
Vocative pēnumbra pēnumbrae

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From New Latin penumbra, from Latin paene (almost) + umbra (shadow).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

  • Hyphenation: pe‧num‧bra

Noun[edit]

penumbra f (plural penumbras)

  1. situation of low light

Further reading[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Noun[edit]

penumbra f

  1. definite nominative/accusative singular of penumbră

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From New Latin penumbra, from Latin paene (almost) + umbra (shadow).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /peˈnumbɾa/ [peˈnũm.bɾa]
  • Rhymes: -umbɾa
  • Syllabification: pe‧num‧bra

Noun[edit]

penumbra f (plural penumbras)

  1. half-light
    • 2010 April, Joaquín Londáiz Montiel, Crónicas de la Atlántida, Montena, →ISBN, page 31:
      La estancia se encontraba sumida en una inquietante penumbra.
      The room was immersed in a disturbing half-light.
  2. shadow, shade
    • 1926, Federico García Lorca, Oda a salvador Dalí:
      El mundo tiene sordas penumbras y desorden,
      en los primeros términos que el humano frecuenta.
      Pero ya las estrellas ocultando paisajes,
      señalan el esquema perfecto de sus órbitas.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  3. penumbra

Further reading[edit]