zaudēt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognates include Lithuanian žavìnti, žudýti. From the same stem as zust (to disappear) (q.v.), of which zaudēt was originally one of the causative forms. The original meaning “to destroy” is attested in 17th-century texts.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

zaudēt tr. or intr., 2nd conj., pres. zaudēju, zaudē, zaudē, past zaudēju

  1. to lose (to cause something to not be in one's possession without something, e.g., because of circumstances or bad luck)
    zaudēt visu mantu — to lose all (one's) property, possessions
    zaudēt sazvejotās zivis — to lose the fish that had been caught
    viņš zināja, ka Dzērvītes ir pēdējā dzimtas ligzda, kas to saistīja pie šīm vietām; zaudējot Dzērvītes, jaunie putni izklīstu pasaulē... pazustu svešos ļaudīs... nedrīkst zaudēt Dzērvītes — he knew that Dzērvītes (house) was the last family nest that connected him to this place... losing Dzērvītes, the new birds would disperse in the world... (they) would disappear in (= among) strangers... (he) couldn't lose Dzērvītes
  2. to lose (to end up without (something), to not have been able to protect, conserve (something))
    zaudēt dzīvību — to lose (one's) life
    zaudēt dzimteni — to lose (one's) homeland
    zaudēt brīvību — to lose (one's) freedom
    zaudēt darbu — to lose (one's) work, job
    zaudēt savu varu — to lose (one's) power
    zaudēt kāda mīlestību — to lose someone's love
    zaudēt tiesības uz mantojumu — to lose(one's) right of inheritance
    zaudēt spēku — to lose force, validity (a document, law, etc.)
    Bērzu muiža bija zaudējusi savu nosaukumu; muižas te vairs nebija — Bērzu (Birch) Manor had lost its name; there no longer was a manor there
  3. to lose (to be without a relative, friend, acquaintance, etc. after his or her death, or after divorce)
    zaudēt abus vecākus — to lose both parents
    zaudēt kaujā daudzus vīrus — to lose many men in battle
    agrā bernībā viņa bija zaudējusi ir māti, ir tēvu — in early childhood she had lost both (her) mother and (her) father
  4. to lose (to become such that a given body part, organ or bodily function is lacking)
    zaudēt kāju — to lose a leg
    zaudēt dzirdi — to lose (one's) hearing
    zaudēt balsi — to lose (one's) voice
    zaudēt veselību — to lose (one's) health
    zaudēt apetīti — to lose (one's) apetite
    zaudēt samaņu — to lose consciousness
    zaudēt valodu — to lose language (= to be suddenly unable to speak, to be speechless)
  5. (of bodily fluids) to lose (to have less of it)
    zaudēt asinis — to lose blood
    palielinātas slāpes rodas tad, ja organisms pastiprināta veidā zaudē šķidrumu — increased thirst occurs when the organism loses fluids in an accelerated way
    meža cūkas zaudēja rudenī uzkrātos taukus un manāmi novājēja — wild boars lost in fall the accumulated fats and became visibly weaker
  6. (of mental states or skills, or character traits) to lose (to become such that one no longer has it)
    zaudēt drosmi — to lose courage
    zaudēt pašapziņu — to lose self-esteem
    zaudēt savaldību — to lose composure
    zaudēt dzīvesprieku — to lose (one's) enjoyment of life
    zaudēt interesi — to lose interest
    zaudēt autoritāti — to lose authority
    zaudēt cieņu — to lose respect, dignity
    zaudēt cerības — to lose hope
    zaudēt uzticību — to lose confidence
    zaudēt ticību saviem spēkiem — to lose faith in oneself (lit. in one's forces)
    zaudēju pacietību un uzkliedzu, cik man bija spēka: “klusumu!” — I lost patience and shouted, as loud as I could: “quiet!”
    mūsu dienās cilvēki zaudējuši prasmi rakstīt vēstules — in our days, people have lost their ability to write letters
  7. to lose (to no longer have a certain appearance or quality)
    mati zaudējuši spīdumu — the hair has lost (its) luster
    piens zaudējis labo garšu — the milk has lost (its) good flavor
    nauda zaudējusi savu vērtību — the money has lost its value
  8. to lose (to have one's speed, altitude, size, etc. decrease)
    lidmašīna strauji zaudēja augstumu — the airplane quickly lost altitude
    kājas dzērājam bija zaudējušas parasto ritmu — the drunkard's legs had lost their normal rhythm
  9. to lose (to not obtain, to not get, something that could have been obtained, gotten; to spend something pointlessly)
    zaudēt laiku — to lose time
    mēs zaudējām divas diennaktis — we lost two whole days
    vai jums bija zināms, ka ar šo parmaiņu jūs mēnesī zaudējat ap trīsdesmit rubļu? — did you know that with this change you lose about three hundred rubles every month?
  10. (intransitive or transitive) to lose (to be beaten, defeated)
    zaudēt karā — to lose in war
    zaudēt tiesā — to lose in court
    zaudēt karu, kauju, cīņu — to lose the war, the battle, the fight
    zaudēt derības — to lose a bet
    spēlējām kaut kā bez iedvesmas un parasti zaudējām — we played somewhat without inspiration and usually lost
    rīdzinieki nespēja trāpīgi izpildīt soda metienu un zaudēja ar 4:5 — the Riga (team) could not successfully carry out a penalty shot and lost by 4:5
    sportā daži uzvar un daži zaudē, un pats svārīgākais ir gan triumfu, gan neveiksmi uzņemt ar vienādu vīrišķību — in sports some win and some lose, and even the most important (players) have to take both triumph and defeat with some manliness

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ “zaudēt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.