šķidrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as šķīst (to dissolve, to melt) (q.v.): Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰēi- (clear, light, shiny). With an extra suffix -d, it lead to two Proto-Baltic variants, one voiceless (with an extra s-mobile) and one voiced: *skied-, *skaid-, *skid- (whence, with an extra suffix -ru-s, šķidrs, skaidrs (clear), and also — with a different suffix — skaists (beautiful)), and *gied-, *gaid-, *gid- (whence, also with an extra -ru-s, dzidrs (clear, limpid), which is etymologically a variant of šķidrs), with some form influence between the two variants. The meaning evolved from “clear, limpid” > “(liquid) having no sediment, no sludge” > “liquid.” A different opinion is that šķidrs might ultimately derive from Proto-Indo-European *skei- (to cut, to slice).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

šķidrs (def. šķidrais, comp. šķidrāks, sup. visšķidrākais; adv. šķidri)

  1. (physics) liquid (in a state of matter such that it can flow and take the form of its container)
    šķidra viela‎ ― liquid substance
    pārvēst vielu šķidrā agregātstāvoklī‎ ― to convert a subtance to liquid state
    šķidrā degviela, šķidrais kurināmais‎ ― liquid fuel
    šķidrais stikls‎ ― liquid glass
    šķidrie minerālmēsli‎ ― liquid mineral fertilizer
    šķidrie nokrišņi‎ ― liquid precipitation (rainfall)
    šķidrs hēlijs‎ ― liquid helium
  2. (of mixtures) liquid, thin (composed mostly of liquids, having relatively little solid parts)
    šķidra putra, zupa‎ ― liquid, thin porridge, soup
  3. (colloquial, of hair, plumage, foliage, vegetation) thin, sparse
    šķidrie, gaišie mati‎ ― thin, light hair
    tajā dzīvoja vecs jakuts ar šķidru bārdiņu‎ ― there lived an old Yakut with a thin little beard
    krūmi aplokā gan nobiruši un šķidri'‎ ― the bushes in the yard were rather fallen and thin (= had few leaves)
  4. (colloquial, of fabric, cloth) thin, worn off
    seju klāj šķidrs zīda lakatiņš‎ ― a thin silk veil covered (her) face
    lētais audums kļuvis pavisam šķidrs‎ ― the cheap fabric has become (after washing) really thin
  5. (colloquial, of groups of people) thin, sparse (with members relatively far from each other)
    pūlis pavisam mazs un šķidrs kļuvis‎ ― the crowd became small and thin
  6. (colloquial, of clouds, smoke, etc.) thin (having low density)
    reti bālganzili, šķidrs mākonīši‎ ― a few rare pale bluish thin little clouds
  7. (colloquial) thin, (scattered) few, not much, unimpressive, not good
    aplausi bija šķidri‎ ― the applause was thin
    šie man prasa: “kā ar mācībām?” “šķidri”, es saku‎ ― they ask me: “how about your training?” “thin” (= bad), I answer

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (of hair, groups of people): rets
  • (of hair, fabric, mixtures): plāns

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “šķidrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7