عود

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See also: ع و دand عوذ

Arabic[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

From ع و د(ʿ-w-d) meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.[1] See also aloe, lute.

The instrument sense of the word derives as an Arabic version of the Persian بربط(barbat), that featured a smaller more curved neck with greater tension, as well as a larger rounded belly created from steam-bent strips of wood. The Barbat was carved from one solid piece of wood, the larger size of the oud's belly was something not previously possible before the further development of using hot moisture to aid in bending thin strips. This characteristic technique became the traditional source of the instruments name;[2] for more see Oud and Barbat.

However there is a cognate instrument Ugaritic 𐎓𐎄 (ʿd, lute, an instrument) 1000's of years prior to this[3], identified as an early chordophone with connection to the Sumerian 𒄑𒅗𒁲 (gu3.di, instruments in general, a lute, literally wood that has voice)[4][5] This precursor to ouds and guitars was constructed of strings laid on a wood-staff that ran through the whole body of the instrument attached to a simple drum-like resonating body; as strings of lyres and drums were used prior, the distinguishing feature was this wooden rod.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʕuːd/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

عُود (ʿūdm (plural أَعْوَاد(ʾaʿwād) or عِيدَان(ʿīdān))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick, rod, pole
  3. branch, twig
  4. stem, stalk
  5. cane, reed
  6. aloe, agarwood, any plant with high moisture content
    • a. 1283, Abū Yahyā Zakariyāʾ ibn Muhammad al-Qazwīnīy, Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, editor, عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات [ʿajāʾib al-maḵlūqāt wa-ḡarāʾib al-mawjūdāt][2], Göttingen: Verlag der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung, published 1849, page 260:
      عود شجرة تنبت في جزائر بحر الهند عروقها تقلع وتدفن في الأرض حتى تتعفن منها الحشية فيبقى العود الخالص قال شيخ الرئيس مضعة يطيب النكهة وينفع الدماغ جدَّا ويقوّي الحواسّ والقلب ويفرحه وتدخينه بالسكر طيب جدَّا والسكر يقوّي رائحته وشراب العود طارد للرياح المؤلمة.‎‎
      Agalloch is a tree that grows in islands of the Indian sea and its roots are extracted and buried in the earth until they rot, of it one makes a stuffing and it stays pure, Šayḵ ar-Raʾīs says that a bit of it already is of nice smell and assists the brain in a serious extent and strengthens the senses and the heart and rejoices it and when smoked with sugar it is also very nice, sugar strengthens its smell and the syrup of agalloch expectorates doloriferous winds.[6]
  7. thin strip of wood, veneer
  8. (music) oud, lute
  9. body, build, physique
  10. strength, specifically tensile strength, force, intensity
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Ottoman Turkish: عود(öd)
  • Persian: عود(ud)

Etymology 2[edit]

Verbal noun of عَادَ(ʿāda, to return), from the root ع و د(ʿ-w-d).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

عَوْد (ʿawdm

  1. verbal noun of عَادَ(ʿāda) (form I)
  2. return
  3. reversion, recurrence
  4. (law) recidivism
  5. repetition, reiteration
    • a. 1274, Ibn Malik, Alfiyyah, verses 559–560:
      وَعَوْدُ خَافِضٍ لَدَى عَطْفٍ عَلَى / ضَمِيرِ خَفْضٍ لَازِمًا قَدْ جُعِلَا / وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي لَازِمًا إِذْ قَدْ أَتَى / فِي ٱلنَّظْمِ وَٱلنَّثْرِ الصَّحِيحِ مُثْبَتَا
      waʿawdu ḵāfiḍin ladā ʿaṭfin ʿalā / ḍamīri ḵafḍin lāziman qad juʿilā / walaysa ʿindī lāziman ʾiḏ qad ʾatā / fī n-naẓmi wan-naṯri ṣ-ṣaḥīḥi muṯbatā
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  6. camel trained to be ridden
    • p. 700, a forger of Imruʾ al-Qays, سما لكَ شوقٌ بعدما كان أقصر [3] [4]:
      وَإِنِّي زَعِيمٌ (var.‎ أَذِينٌ) إِنْ رَجِعْتُ مُمَلَّكٌ / بِسَيْرٍ تَرَى مِنْهُ الفُرَانِقَ أَزْوَرَا
      عَلَى لَاحِبٍ لَا يَهْتَدِي بِمَنَارِهِ / إِذَا سَافَهُ الْعَوْدُ النُّبَاطِيُّ (var.‎ دِيَافِيُّ) جَرْجَرَا
      عَلَى كُلِّ مَقْصُوصِ الذُنَابَى مُعَاوِدٍ / بَرِيدَ السَرَى بِاللَيْلِ مِن خَيْلِ بَرْبَرَا
      wa-ʾinnī zaʿīmun (var. ʾaḏīnun) ʾin rajiʿtu mumallakun / bi-sayrin tarā minhu l-furāniqa ʾazwarā
      ʿalā lāḥibin lā yahtadī bi-manāri-hī / ʾiḏā sāfa-hū l-ʿawdu n-nubāṭiyyu (var. diyāfiyyu) jarjarā
      ʿalā kulli maqṣūṣi ḏ-ḏunābā muʿāwidin / barīda s-sarā bi-l-layli min ḵayli barbarā
      And when I am the leader, back in the kingly rights, I trip so fast that you but see asquint the courier
      on an open road guided by no waymark, when it is smelled by the Nabataean camel dragging forward
      on every clipped bird-tail returning nocturnal journey’s mail by night from a horse that whinnied.
  7. worn road
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lane's Dictionary, pages 2188-2192, specifically bottom middle column of 2190, "عود", root meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.
  2. ^ Jean During (1988-12-15): Barbaṭ. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  3. ^ Matahisa Koitabashi: Musical Instruments in the Ugaritic Texts. In: Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan Vol. 39 (1996) No. 2 P 16-32
  4. ^ The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, ĝešgudi, University of Pennsylvania, 2004; note: the ĝeš prefix is a determinative for wooden objects.
  5. ^ "194a" in Dominique Collon: Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995 in conjunction with The Trustees of the British Museum, page 225.
  6. ^ Commented by Jacob, Georg (1892) Studien in arabischen Geographen[1] (in German), volume 4, Berlin: Meyer & Müller, pages 159–160, who identifies this use with Aquilaria agallocha.

Gulf Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

عود (ʿōd)

  1. big, large
    Synonym: كبير(kbīr)

Noun[edit]

عود (ʿōdm

  1. (Kuwait, colloquial) (with الـ(il-)) Emir of Kuwait

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

عود (ʿūdm (plural اَعْواد(aʿwād) or عيدان(ʿīdān))

  1. drinking straw
  2. oud, lute
  3. incense

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

عَوَّد (ʿawwad) (non-past يعود(iʿawwid))

  1. to make someone get used to something or someone
    عودنا عليك
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

عود (ʕūdm (plural عواد(ʕwād))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick
  3. branch, twig
  4. (music) oud, lute

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic عَوْد(ʿawd, camel trained to be ridden).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

عود (ʕawdm (plural عودان(ʕawdān))

  1. horse
    Synonyms: حصان(ḥiṣān), خيل(ḵīl, ḵayl)

Ottoman Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd).

Noun[edit]

عود (öd)

  1. wood, piece of wood or timber; stick, wand, etc.
  2. aloeswood, agarwood, agalloch
  3. oud, lute

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Persian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd, aromatic wood).

Noun[edit]

عود (ud)

  1. incense

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd, wood; lute).

Noun[edit]

عود (ud) (plural عودها(ud-hâ))

  1. (music) oud, lute, barbat
    Synonym: بربط(barbat)