عود

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See also: ع و د

Arabic[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

From ع و د (ʿ-w-d) meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.[1] See also aloe, lute.

The instrument sense of the word derives as an Arabic version of the Persian بربط (barbat), that featured a smaller more curved neck with greater tension, as well as a larger rounded belly created from steam-bent strips of wood. The Barbat was carved from one solid piece of wood, the larger size of the oud's belly was something not previously possible before the further development of using hot moisture to aid in bending thin strips. This characteristic technique became the traditional source of the instruments name;[2] for more see Oud and Barbat.

However there is a cognate instrument Ugaritic 𐎓𐎄 (ʿd, lute, an instrument) 1000's of years prior to this[3], identified as an early chordophone with connection to the Sumerian 𒄑𒅗𒁲 (gu3.di, instruments in general, a lute, literally wood that has voice)[4][5] This precursor to ouds and guitars was constructed of strings laid on a wood-staff that ran through the whole body of the instrument attached to a simple drum-like resonating body; as strings of lyres and drums were used prior, the distinguishing feature was this wooden rod.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

عُود (ʿūdm (plural أَعْوَاد (ʾaʿwād) or عِيدَان (ʿīdān))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick, rod, pole
  3. branch, twig
  4. stem, stalk
  5. cane, reed
  6. aloe, agarwood, any plant with high moisture content
  7. thin strip of wood, veneer
  8. (music) oud, lute
  9. body, build, physique
  10. strength, specifically tensile strength, force, intensity
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verbal noun of عَادَ (ʿāda, to return), from the root ع و د (ʿ-w-d).

Noun[edit]

عَوْد (ʿawdm

  1. verbal noun of عَادَ (ʿāda) (form I)
  2. return
  3. reversion, recurrence
  4. (law) recidivism
  5. repetition, reiteration
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lane's Dictionary, pages 2188-2192, specifically bottom middle column of 2190, "عود", root meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.
  2. ^ Jean During (1988-12-15): Barbaṭ. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  3. ^ Matahisa Koitabashi: Musical Instruments in the Ugaritic Texts. In: Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan Vol. 39 (1996) No. 2 P 16-32
  4. ^ The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, ĝešgudi, University of Pennsylvania, 2004; note: the ĝeš prefix is a determinative for wooden objects.
  5. ^ "194a" in Dominique Collon: Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995 in conjunction with The Trustees of the British Museum, page 225.

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Noun[edit]

عود (ʕawd)

  1. horse

Persian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ed-.

Noun[edit]

عود (ud)

  1. incense

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic.

Noun[edit]

عود (ud) (plural عودها (ud-hâ))

  1. (music) oud, lute, barbat

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]