दुःख

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Hindi[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit दुःख (duḥkha).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /d̪ʊkʰ/, /d̪ʊkkʰ/

Noun[edit]

दुःख (duḥkhm (Urdu spelling دکھ‎)

  1. sorrow, grief, sadness
    अपना दुःख मित्र के साथ बाँटना चाहिए।
    apnā duḥkh mitra ke sāth bā̃ṭnā cāhie.
    You should share your sorrows with friends.
    Synonyms: ग़म (ġam), उदासी (udāsī)
  2. suffering, distress
    उसने जीवन में बहुत दुःख उठाया।
    usne jīvan mẽ bahut duḥkh uṭhāyā.
    He has endured much suffering in his life.
    Synonym: कष्ट (kaṣṭ)
    Antonym: सुख (sukh)

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bahri, Hardev, “दुःख”, in Siksarthi Hindi-Angrejhi Sabdakosa [Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary], Delhi: Rajpal & Sons, 1989

Nepali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit दुःख (duḥkha).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /d̪ukʰʌ/, [d̪uk̞ʰʌ], /d̪ukkʰʌ/, [d̪uk̚kʰʌ]

Noun[edit]

दुःख (duḥkha)

  1. sorrow, grief, sadness
  2. suffering, distress
    Synonyms: वेदना (vedanā), कष्ट (kaṣṭa), क्लेश (kleś)
    Antonym: सुख (sukha)
  3. trouble, hardship
    Synonym: तकलीफ (taklīph)
  4. shortage, need

References[edit]

  • दुःख”, in नेपाली बृहत् शब्दकोश (Nepālī Br̥hat Śabdakoś) [Comprehensive Nepali Dictionary], Kathmandu: Nepal Academy, 2018
  • Schmidt, Ruth L. (1993) , “दुःख”, in A Practical Dictionary of Modern Nepali, Ratna Sagar

Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably reborrowed from a Prakrit form of earlier दुःस्थ (duḥstha, poor), from दुस्- (dus-, bad) +‎ स्था (sthā, to stand).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

दुःख (duḥkhán

  1. sorrow, distress, suffering, grief, misery, uneasiness, pain

Declension[edit]

Neuter a-stem declension of दुःख (duḥkhá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative दुःखम्
duḥkhám
दुःखे
duḥkhé
दुःखानि / दुःखा¹
duḥkhā́ni / duḥkhā́¹
Vocative दुःख
dúḥkha
दुःखे
dúḥkhe
दुःखानि / दुःखा¹
dúḥkhāni / dúḥkhā¹
Accusative दुःखम्
duḥkhám
दुःखे
duḥkhé
दुःखानि / दुःखा¹
duḥkhā́ni / duḥkhā́¹
Instrumental दुःखेन
duḥkhéna
दुःखाभ्याम्
duḥkhā́bhyām
दुःखैः / दुःखेभिः¹
duḥkhaíḥ / duḥkhébhiḥ¹
Dative दुःखाय
duḥkhā́ya
दुःखाभ्याम्
duḥkhā́bhyām
दुःखेभ्यः
duḥkhébhyaḥ
Ablative दुःखात्
duḥkhā́t
दुःखाभ्याम्
duḥkhā́bhyām
दुःखेभ्यः
duḥkhébhyaḥ
Genitive दुःखस्य
duḥkhásya
दुःखयोः
duḥkháyoḥ
दुःखानाम्
duḥkhā́nām
Locative दुःखे
duḥkhé
दुःखयोः
duḥkháyoḥ
दुःखेषु
duḥkhéṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Neuter a-stem declension of दुᳵख (duxkhá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative दुᳵखम्
duxkhám
दुᳵखे
duxkhé
दुᳵखानि / दुᳵखा¹
duxkhā́ni / duxkhā́¹
Vocative दुᳵख
dúxkha
दुᳵखे
dúxkhe
दुᳵखानि / दुᳵखा¹
dúxkhāni / dúxkhā¹
Accusative दुᳵखम्
duxkhám
दुᳵखे
duxkhé
दुᳵखानि / दुᳵखा¹
duxkhā́ni / duxkhā́¹
Instrumental दुᳵखेन
duxkhéna
दुᳵखाभ्याम्
duxkhā́bhyām
दुᳵखैः / दुᳵखेभिः¹
duxkhaíḥ / duxkhébhiḥ¹
Dative दुᳵखाय
duxkhā́ya
दुᳵखाभ्याम्
duxkhā́bhyām
दुᳵखेभ्यः
duxkhébhyaḥ
Ablative दुᳵखात्
duxkhā́t
दुᳵखाभ्याम्
duxkhā́bhyām
दुᳵखेभ्यः
duxkhébhyaḥ
Genitive दुᳵखस्य
duxkhásya
दुᳵखयोः
duxkháyoḥ
दुᳵखानाम्
duxkhā́nām
Locative दुᳵखे
duxkhé
दुᳵखयोः
duxkháyoḥ
दुᳵखेषु
duxkhéṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Descendants[edit]

Adjective[edit]

दुःख (duḥkhá)

  1. painful, uncomfortable, uneasy, difficult