Appendix:Polish adverbs

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Adverbs are used to describe or modify verbs, participles, adjectives and other adverbs: Samochód jedzie szybko (The car is driving fast), Jesteś bardzo uprzejmy (You are very kind). They may describe the way in which an action is performed, the time when it is performed, or the place where it is performed.

Forming adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are formed by adding an adverbial suffix, -o or -e, to the stem of an adjective. The stem is generally found by removing -y or -i from the masculine nominative singular.


If an adjective ends in -r-y, the adverb receives the -rz-e ending:

When the stem ends in any consonant other than k or l followed by n, the adverb receives the -nie ending:

Exceptions: złyźle, trwałytrwale (but śmiałyśmiało), starystaro.

Adverbs are indeclinable. However, some of them form comparatives and superlatives.

Comparison of adverbs[edit]

The comparative is often formed by adding the suffix -ej or -iej to the stem of the corresponding positive form. In some cases, the end of the stem undergoes sound changes:

In other cases: -o-ej.

The superlative is always formed by adding the prefix naj- to the comparative form.

Some adverbs do not form comparatives and superlatives by changing the ending. Instead, an adverb is placed before the adverb: bardziej (more) to form the comparative, and najbardziej (the most) to form the superlative. It is possible to form such superlatives and comparatives for every adverb.

Some adverbs have irregular (suppletive) comparatives and superlatives:

Positive Comparative Superlative
dobrze lepiej najlepiej
źle gorzej najgorzej
dużo więcej najwięcej
mało mniej najmniej

Adverb word order[edit]

Adverbs are most often placed before the verbs they modify. To put an additional stress on the adverb, it may be put at the end of the sentence.

Adverbs modifing adjectives and other adverbs are placed before the adjective or adverb they modify.

See also[edit]

Polish adjectives on Wiktionary