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See also: ruotsi and Rootsi


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From archaic ruotsi (Swede), from Proto-Finnic *roocci [1] (around 8th-9th century CE; very late, possibly even post-Proto-Finnic), borrowed from Old East Norse *roþs- (related to rowing) (compare Old Swedish *roþs-, modern Swedish ro (to row)), possibly as part of the word rōþskarl, rōþs­män (rower).[2] The name is also connected to Old Norse Roþrslandi (the land of rowing), the older name of Roslagen.[3] The word is ultimately from Old Norse róðr (steering oar), from Proto-Germanic *rōþrą (rudder), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁reh₁- (to row).

Finnic cognates include Estonian Rootsi, Livvi Ruočči ((Lutheran) Finland), Veps Ročinma and Võro Roodsi. Old East Slavic Русь (Rusĭ) (whence Byzantine Greek Ρωσσία (Rōssía)), the original form of the endonym of Russians that originally referred to a tribe of Varangians, is borrowed from Finnic (compare the etymology section of ryssä ((derogatory) Russian), from Swedish ryss, from the aforementioned Slavic word).[2][3] Samic words, such as Northern Sami Ruoŧŧa, are borrowings from Finnic.[2]


  • IPA(key): /ˈruo̯tsi/, [ˈruo̞̯ts̠i]
  • Audio "Ruotsi, ruotsalainen, ruotsalaiset, ruotsin kieli":(file)
  • Rhymes: -uotsi
  • Syllabification(key): Ruot‧si

Proper noun[edit]


  1. Sweden
    Synonym: Ruotsinmaa


Inflection of Ruotsi (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative Ruotsi
genitive Ruotsin
partitive Ruotsia
illative Ruotsiin
singular plural
nominative Ruotsi
accusative nom. Ruotsi
gen. Ruotsin
genitive Ruotsin
partitive Ruotsia
inessive Ruotsissa
elative Ruotsista
illative Ruotsiin
adessive Ruotsilla
ablative Ruotsilta
allative Ruotsille
essive Ruotsina
translative Ruotsiksi
abessive Ruotsitta
Possessive forms of Ruotsi (type risti)
possessor singular plural
1st person Ruotsini Ruotsimme
2nd person Ruotsisi Ruotsinne
3rd person Ruotsinsa

Derived terms[edit]



  1. ^ Kallio, Petri: The Diversification of Proto-Finnic Joonas Ahola & Frog (eds.), Fibula, Fabula, Fact: The Viking Age in Finland, pp. 155-168. Studia Fennica Historica 18 (2014)[1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Itkonen, Erkki; Kulonen, Ulla-Maija, editors (1992–2000) Suomen sanojen alkuperä [The origin of Finnish words]‎[2] (in Finnish), [note: linked online version also includes some other etymological sources], Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland/Finnish Literature Society, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004) Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja [Modern Finnish Etymological Dictionary] (in Finnish), Juva: WSOY, →ISBN