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The following list is (for now) from Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.


Wiktionary's transcription first, followed by Sammallahti's exact transcription (if different). Cases marked with (!) differ more substantially in their reconstruction.

Proto-Uralic roots[edit]

(i.e. words with Samoyedic cognates known in 1988)

Proto-Finno-Ugric roots[edit]

(i.e. roots without Samoyedic cognates known in 1988; many have by now been upgraded in status)

Proto-Finno-Permic roots[edit]

(again, per 1988 status)