gulag

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See also: gułag, gúlag, Gulag, GULAG, and GUŁag

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

Political prisoners at Intalag, a forced labour camp of the gulag (sense 1) near Inta in the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, mainly involved in coal-mining.

Borrowed from Russian ГУЛА́Г (GULÁG), the acronym of Гла́вное управле́ние исправи́тельно-трудовы́х лагере́й (Glávnoje upravlénije ispravítelʹno-trudovýx lageréj, Chief Administration of Corrective-Labor Camps),[1] the government agency in charge of the Soviet Union’s network of forced labour camps, which was established in 1918 and formally abolished in 1960: see GULAG.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈɡuːlɑɡ/, (sometimes) /-læɡ/, /ɡuːˈlɑk/
  • (file)
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈɡuˌlɑɡ/, (sometimes) /-ˌlæɡ/
  • Rhymes: (Received Pronunciation) -ɑːk
  • Hyphenation: gu‧lag

Noun[edit]

gulag (plural gulags)

  1. (historical) Also GULAG: the system of all Soviet labour camps and prisons in use, especially during the Stalinist period (1930s–1950s).
    • [2006?], David Hosford, Pamela Kachurin, Thomas Lamont, “Day 1 Content Essay: The Establishment and Scope of the GULAG System”, in GULAG: Soviet Prison Camps and Their Legacy [][1], [U.S.A.]: National Park Service; Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Harvard University, →OCLC, archived from the original on 31 October 2021, page 7, column 1:
      One important difference between the GULAG system and the Nazi concentration camps was that a person sentenced to five years of hard labor in a Soviet labor camp could expect, assuming he or she survived, to be released at the end of the sentence.
  2. (by extension)
    1. A prison camp, especially one used to hold political prisoners.
    2. (also figuratively) A place where, or political system in which, people with dissident views are routinely oppressed.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

gulag (third-person singular simple present gulags, present participle gulaging or gulagging, simple past and past participle gulaged or gulagged)

  1. (transitive, informal, also figuratively) To compel (someone) into a forced labour camp or a similar place of confinement or exile.
    • 1988, Sue Curry Jansen, Censorship: The Knot that Binds Power and Knowledge (Communication and Society), New York, N.Y., Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 8:
      Regulative censorships can be amended or revolutionized in ways that raise or lower bodycounts, numbers of books banned or citizens ghettoed or gulaged.
    • 1993 September, Nelson George, “Haywired”, in Jonathan Van Meter, editor, Vibe, New York, N.Y.: Time Inc. Ventures, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 116, column 3:
      The marriage would be the last good thing in [Spencer] Haywood's life for a long time. He was gulaged to basketball Siberia—the now-defunct New Orleans franchise—for his failure to resurrect the Knicks, but at [Kareem Abdul-]Jabbar's urging the Lakers acquired him in 1980.
    • 1998, Peter Makuck, “Dangerous Difference: W[illiam] D[e Witt] Snodgrass’s The Death of Cock Robin”, in Philip Raisor, editor, Tuned and Under Tension: The Recent Poetry of W. D. Snodgrass, Newark, N.J.: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, →ISBN, page 31:
      Such a situation touches off in the reader a powerful sense of historical déjà vu: witch hunts, Gestapo roundups, the McCarthy era, Argentinian death squads, [Francisco] Franco and the murder of [Federico] Garcia Lorca, the KGB and the disappearance of Isaac Babel, the gulagging of Osip Mandelstam and Anna Akhmatova, to name just a few.
    • 2001, Larry Gross, “Journalism’s Closet Opens”, in Up from Invisibility: Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Media in America (Between Men—Between Women), New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 118:
      [Abraham Michael] Rosenthal's reign was described by many as a period of paranoia and terror at the [New York] Times—one reporter said, "He was like the Czar; people would get gulaged at the drop of a hat."
    • 2012 October, Paul Kengor, “Frank’s Writings in the Chicago Star (1946–48)”, in The Communist: Frank Marshall Davis: The Untold Story of Barack Obama’s Mentor, New York, N.Y.: Threshold Editions/Mercury Ink, →ISBN, page 138:
      He wanted American Christians to pay reverence to the greater glory of the USSR, which, in his mind, was not a nation blowing up churches, gulaging the religious, shooting priests, locking up nuns with prostitutes—declaring nus "whores to Christ"—and pursuing what Mikhail Gorbachev later correctly described as a "war on religion."
    • 2017, Susan S. M. Edwards, “Cyber-grooming Young Women for Terrorist Activity: Dominant and Subjugated Explanatory Narratives”, in Emilio C. Viano, editor, Cybercrime, Organized Crime, and Societal Responses: International Approaches, Cham, Switzerland=: Springer Nature, →DOI, →ISBN, page 30:
      Knowledge that does not serve the state ideological apparatus or the dominant ruling, economic, intellectual or political force is knowledge or ideas that are consciously suppressed and "gulaged".
    • 2019, Jal Mehta, Sarah Fine, “The Progressive Frontier: Project-based Learning”, in In Search of Deeper Learning: The Quest to Remake the American High School, Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard University Press, →ISBN, page 52:
      The kids of high socioeconomic status were on the fifth floor, the lowest on the ground floor. The Technical Arts building had the Cape Verdeans and the Haitians … all of whom were Gulagged there in a building which they not-so-ironically called "the island."
    • 2020, Fady Joudah, “Your Name is on the List and Other Vignettes”, in Pauline Kaldas, Khaled Mattawa, editors, Beyond Memory: An Anthology of Contemporary Arab American Creative Nonfiction, Fayetteville, Ark.: University of Arkansas Press, →ISBN, page 116:
      For Dad, home had been pulverized, reduced repeatedly to its nuclear constituents. As if he'd been gulagged to the Big Bang of belonging. An imaginary time, without boundary, without beginning or end.

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gulag, n.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2019; Gulag, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Further reading[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Russian ГУЛА́Г (GULÁG)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡulɑɡ/, [ˈɡulɑ̝ɡ]
  • Rhymes: -ulɑɡ
  • Syllabification(key): gu‧lag

Noun[edit]

gulag

  1. gulag

Declension[edit]

Inflection of gulag (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative gulag gulagit
genitive gulagin gulagien
partitive gulagia gulageja
illative gulagiin gulageihin
singular plural
nominative gulag gulagit
accusative nom. gulag gulagit
gen. gulagin
genitive gulagin gulagien
partitive gulagia gulageja
inessive gulagissa gulageissa
elative gulagista gulageista
illative gulagiin gulageihin
adessive gulagilla gulageilla
ablative gulagilta gulageilta
allative gulagille gulageille
essive gulagina gulageina
translative gulagiksi gulageiksi
abessive gulagitta gulageitta
instructive gulagein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of gulag (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative gulagini gulagini
accusative nom. gulagini gulagini
gen. gulagini
genitive gulagini gulagieni
partitive gulagiani gulagejani
inessive gulagissani gulageissani
elative gulagistani gulageistani
illative gulagiini gulageihini
adessive gulagillani gulageillani
ablative gulagiltani gulageiltani
allative gulagilleni gulageilleni
essive gulaginani gulageinani
translative gulagikseni gulageikseni
abessive gulagittani gulageittani
instructive
comitative gulageineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative gulagisi gulagisi
accusative nom. gulagisi gulagisi
gen. gulagisi
genitive gulagisi gulagiesi
partitive gulagiasi gulagejasi
inessive gulagissasi gulageissasi
elative gulagistasi gulageistasi
illative gulagiisi gulageihisi
adessive gulagillasi gulageillasi
ablative gulagiltasi gulageiltasi
allative gulagillesi gulageillesi
essive gulaginasi gulageinasi
translative gulagiksesi gulageiksesi
abessive gulagittasi gulageittasi
instructive
comitative gulageinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative gulagimme gulagimme
accusative nom. gulagimme gulagimme
gen. gulagimme
genitive gulagimme gulagiemme
partitive gulagiamme gulagejamme
inessive gulagissamme gulageissamme
elative gulagistamme gulageistamme
illative gulagiimme gulageihimme
adessive gulagillamme gulageillamme
ablative gulagiltamme gulageiltamme
allative gulagillemme gulageillemme
essive gulaginamme gulageinamme
translative gulagiksemme gulageiksemme
abessive gulagittamme gulageittamme
instructive
comitative gulageinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative gulaginne gulaginne
accusative nom. gulaginne gulaginne
gen. gulaginne
genitive gulaginne gulagienne
partitive gulagianne gulagejanne
inessive gulagissanne gulageissanne
elative gulagistanne gulageistanne
illative gulagiinne gulageihinne
adessive gulagillanne gulageillanne
ablative gulagiltanne gulageiltanne
allative gulagillenne gulageillenne
essive gulaginanne gulageinanne
translative gulagiksenne gulageiksenne
abessive gulagittanne gulageittanne
instructive
comitative gulageinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative gulaginsa gulaginsa
accusative nom. gulaginsa gulaginsa
gen. gulaginsa
genitive gulaginsa gulagiensa
partitive gulagiaan
gulagiansa
gulagejaan
gulagejansa
inessive gulagissaan
gulagissansa
gulageissaan
gulageissansa
elative gulagistaan
gulagistansa
gulageistaan
gulageistansa
illative gulagiinsa gulageihinsa
adessive gulagillaan
gulagillansa
gulageillaan
gulageillansa
ablative gulagiltaan
gulagiltansa
gulageiltaan
gulageiltansa
allative gulagilleen
gulagillensa
gulageilleen
gulageillensa
essive gulaginaan
gulaginansa
gulageinaan
gulageinansa
translative gulagikseen
gulagiksensa
gulageikseen
gulageiksensa
abessive gulagittaan
gulagittansa
gulageittaan
gulageittansa
instructive
comitative gulageineen
gulageinensa

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Brazil) IPA(key): /ɡu.la.ɡuˈi/ [ɡu.la.ɡʊˈi], /ɡu.laˈɡi/

  • Hyphenation: gu‧lag

Noun[edit]

gulag m (plural gulags)

  1. gulag (Soviet labour camp)

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Russian ГУЛАГ (GULAG).

Noun[edit]

gulag n (plural gulaguri)

  1. gulag

Declension[edit]

Slovak[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

gulag m inan (genitive singular gulagu, nominative plural gulagy, genitive plural gulagov, declension pattern of dub)

  1. gulag

Declension[edit]


Further reading[edit]

  • gulag”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Russian ГУЛА́Г (GULÁG).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɡuˈlaɡ/ [ɡuˈlaɣ̞]
  • Rhymes: -aɡ
  • Syllabification: gu‧lag

Noun[edit]

gulag m (plural gulags)

  1. gulag

Further reading[edit]