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See also: vacò





  1. first-person singular present indicative of vacare




From Proto-Italic *wakos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to lack; empty).[1] The form in vo- possibly from vocīvus, shifted in pretonic syllable.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • voco (in mss. of Plautus)



vacō (present infinitive vacāre, perfect active vacāvī, supine vacātum); first conjugation

  1. I am empty, void
  2. I am unoccupied, vacant
  3. (with dative) I am idle, at leisure
    Philosophiae vacat.
    He has leisure for philosophy.
  4. I am free to attend, have time, am not under other obligation


   Conjugation of vacō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vacō vacās vacat vacāmus vacātis vacant
imperfect vacābam vacābās vacābat vacābāmus vacābātis vacābant
future vacābō vacābis vacābit vacābimus vacābitis vacābunt
perfect vacāvī vacāvistī, vacāstī1 vacāvit vacāvimus vacāvistis, vacāstis1 vacāvērunt, vacāvēre
pluperfect vacāveram vacāverās vacāverat vacāverāmus vacāverātis vacāverant
future perfect vacāverō vacāveris vacāverit vacāverimus vacāveritis vacāverint
passive present vacor vacāris, vacāre vacātur vacāmur vacāminī vacantur
imperfect vacābar vacābāris, vacābāre vacābātur vacābāmur vacābāminī vacābantur
future vacābor vacāberis, vacābere vacābitur vacābimur vacābiminī vacābuntur
perfect vacātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect vacātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect vacātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vacem vacēs vacet vacēmus vacētis vacent
imperfect vacārem vacārēs vacāret vacārēmus vacārētis vacārent
perfect vacāverim vacāverīs vacāverit vacāverīmus vacāverītis vacāverint
pluperfect vacāvissem, vacāssem1 vacāvissēs, vacāssēs1 vacāvisset, vacāsset1 vacāvissēmus, vacāssēmus1 vacāvissētis, vacāssētis1 vacāvissent, vacāssent1
passive present vacer vacēris, vacēre vacētur vacēmur vacēminī vacentur
imperfect vacārer vacārēris, vacārēre vacārētur vacārēmur vacārēminī vacārentur
perfect vacātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect vacātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vacā vacāte
future vacātō vacātō vacātōte vacantō
passive present vacāre vacāminī
future vacātor vacātor vacantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives vacāre vacāvisse, vacāsse1 vacātūrum esse vacārī vacātum esse vacātum īrī
participles vacāns vacātūrus vacātus vacandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
vacandī vacandō vacandum vacandō vacātum vacātū

1At least one rare poetic syncopated perfect form is attested.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “vacō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 649
  • Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[1], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, page 141
  1. ^ Pokorny 141, pages 345-346

Further reading[edit]

  • vaco in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • vaco in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • vaco in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • vaco in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be free from business: negotiis vacare
    • to be free from blame: culpa carere, vacare




  1. First-person singular (yo) present indicative form of vacar.