vakars

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Latvian[edit]

Vakars

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *vakar- (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *wekeras), from Proto-Indo-European *wekʷsperos. The stem was probably originally an adjective, of which vakars < *vakaras was a nominalized version, and vakar the adverbial form, originally meaning “the previous night” and only later “yesterday;” compare Russian вечер ‎(véčer, evening), вчера ‎(včerá, yesterday). Cognates include Lithuanian vãkaras, Old Church Slavonic вєчєръ ‎(večerŭ), Russian, Bulgarian вечер ‎(véčer), Belarusian вечар ‎(vječar), Ukrainian вечір ‎(večir), Czech večer, Polish wieczór, Ancient Greek ἕσπερος ‎(hésperos), Latin vesper, Old Armenian գիշեր ‎(gišer).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

vakars m (1st declension)

  1. evening (time of day, roughly around sunset; also, the time period at the end of the day and before the beginning of the night)
    vēls vakars — late evening
    ziemas vakars — winter evening
    vakara sauleevening sun
    vakara vēsmaevening breeze
    vakara vēsumsevening coolness
    ap septiņiem vakarā — at about seven (o'clock) in the evening
    mācīties pa vakariem — to study in the evening(s)
    vakara krēsla, vakarkresla — twilight (lit. evening dusk)
    vakara blāzma, vakarblāzma — afterglow (lit. evening gleam)
    vakara zvaigzne, vakarzvaigzne — evening star (= Venus)
    vakara vējševening breeze
    pret vakaru sāka līt — toward evening it began to rain
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) evening (typical of that time period; happening d in that time period)
    vakara laikrakstsevening newspaper
    vakara skolaevening school
  3. (figuratively) evening (the final or end phase of some phenomenon)
    mūža, dzīves vakars — the evening of life (= old age)
    es piedzīvoju uzvaras un smagus zaudējumus, un tagad es eju uz vakara pusi — I have lived through victories and heavy losses, and now I am going toward evening (= the end)
  4. evening (a social event taking place at the end of the day)
    dzejas vakars — poetry evening
    atpūtas vakars — recreation evening
    jubilejas vakars — anniversary evening
    jautājumu vakars — question evening
    saviesīgs vakars — soirée, party (lit. social evening)
    vakara vadītājsevening host, master of ceremonies
    kungu vakars — gentlemen's evening (party attended only by men)
  5. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) evening (used or worn for activies or events that happen at the end of the day)
    vakara kleita, vakarkleitaevening dress
    vakara tērps, vakartērpsevening clothes
  6. (with the name of a holiday) eve (the final stage of that holiday; also, the night before that holiday)
    līgo vakars — Midsummer's Eve
    Mārtiņa vakars — Martinmas' Eve
    Ziemassvētku vakars — Christmas' Eve

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Vakars is a noun, means “evening” (locative form vakarā “in the evening,” used also as a temporal adverb) while historically related vakar is an adverb, meaning “yesterday” (its nominal counterpart is vakardiena “(the day of) yesterday”).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “vakars” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

vakars

  1. indefinite genitive plural of vak