vakars

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Latvian[edit]

Vakars

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *vakar- (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *wekeras), from Proto-Indo-European *wekʷsperos. The stem was probably originally an adjective, of which vakars < *vakaras was a nominalized version, and vakar the adverbial form, originally meaning “the previous night” and only later “yesterday;” compare Russian вечер (véčer, evening), вчера (včerá, yesterday). Cognates include Lithuanian vãkaras, Old Church Slavonic вечеръ (večerŭ), Russian, Bulgarian вечер (véčer), Belarusian вечар (vječar), Ukrainian вечір (večir), Czech večer, Polish wieczór, Ancient Greek ἕσπερος (hésperos), Latin vesper, Old Armenian գիշեր (gišer).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

vakars m (1st declension)

  1. evening (time of day, roughly around sunset; also, the time period at the end of the day and before the beginning of the night)
    vēls vakarslate evening
    ziemas vakarswinter evening
    vakara sauleevening sun
    vakara vēsmaevening breeze
    vakara vēsumsevening coolness
    ap septiņiem vakarāat about seven (o'clock) in the evening
    mācīties pa vakariemto study in the evening(s)
    vakara krēsla, vakarkreslatwilight (lit. evening dusk)
    vakara blāzma, vakarblāzmaafterglow (lit. evening gleam)
    vakara zvaigzne, vakarzvaigzne ― evening star (= Venus)
    vakara vējševening breeze
    pret vakaru sāka līttoward evening it began to rain
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) evening (typical of that time period; happening d in that time period)
    vakara laikrakstsevening newspaper
    vakara skolaevening school
  3. (figuratively) evening (the final or end phase of some phenomenon)
    mūža, dzīves vakarsthe evening of life (= old age)
    es piedzīvoju uzvaras un smagus zaudējumus, un tagad es eju uz vakara pusiI have lived through victories and heavy losses, and now I am going toward evening (= the end)
  4. evening (a social event taking place at the end of the day)
    dzejas vakarspoetry evening
    atpūtas vakarsrecreation evening
    jubilejas vakarsanniversary evening
    jautājumu vakarsquestion evening
    saviesīgs vakarssoirée, party (lit. social evening)
    vakara vadītājsevening host, master of ceremonies
    kungu vakarsgentlemen's evening (party attended only by men)
  5. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) evening (used or worn for activies or events that happen at the end of the day)
    vakara kleita, vakarkleitaevening dress
    vakara tērps, vakartērpsevening clothes
  6. (with the name of a holiday) eve (the final stage of that holiday; also, the night before that holiday)
    līgo vakarsMidsummer's Eve
    Mārtiņa vakarsMartinmas' Eve
    Ziemassvētku vakarsChristmas' Eve

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Vakars is a noun, means “evening” (locative form vakarā “in the evening,” used also as a temporal adverb) while historically related vakar is an adverb, meaning “yesterday” (its nominal counterpart is vakardiena “(the day of) yesterday”).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “vakars”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

vakars

  1. indefinite genitive plural of vak